Chromosome - Wikipedia
How Faith Is Hardwired into Our Genes Dean H. Hamer When I asked David Goldstein. a key player in the Y-chromosome research, what the most Culture and DNA The relationship between culture and DNA is not unique to Judaism. DNA of Jesus will not have the Y chromosome. But through true faith in Jesus the divine nature in Jesus is grafted into our human spirit. A chromosome is a Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule with part or all of the genetic .. PMID ^ Sandman K, Reeve JN (March ). "Structure and functional relationships of archaeal and eukaryal histones and nucleosomes ".
Further coiling of the solenoids forms the structure of the chromosome proper. Each chromosome has a p arm and a q arm. The p arm from the French word 'petit', meaning small is the short arm, and the q arm the next letter in the alphabet is the long arm.
In their replicated form, each chromosome consists of two chromatids. Chromosome unraveling to show the base pairings of the DNA The chromosomes - and the DNA they contain - are copied as part of the cell cycle, and passed to daughter cells through the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Read more about the cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis Human beings have 46 chromosomes, consisting of 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes: One member of each pair of chromosomes comes from the mother through the egg cell ; one member of each pair comes from the father through the sperm cell.
A photograph of the chromosomes in a cell is known as a karyotype. The autosomes are numbered in decreasing size order.
Karyotype of a human male Prokaryotic chromosomes The prokaryotes Greek for 'before nucleus' - including Eubacteria and Archaea lack a discrete nucleus, and the chromosomes of prokaryotic cells are not enclosed by a separate membrane. Most bacteria contain a single, circular chromosome. The chromosome - together with ribosomes and proteins associated with gene expression - is located in a region of the cell cytoplasm known as the nucleoid.
The genomes of prokaryotes are compact compared with those of eukaryotes, as they lack introns, and the genes tend to be expressed in groups known as operons. The circular chromosome of the bacterium Escherichia coli consists of a DNA molecule approximately 4. In addition to the main chromosome, bacteria are also characterised by the presence of extra-chromosomal genetic elements called plasmids.
Reproduction and cell division | High school biology | Khan Academy
Other eukaryotic chromosomes, i. The 23 human chromosome territories during prometaphase in fibroblast cells. Asexually reproducing species have one set of chromosomes that are the same in all body cells. However, asexual species can be either haploid or diploid.
Sexually reproducing species have somatic cells body cellswhich are diploid [2n] having two sets of chromosomes 23 pairs in humans with one set of 23 chromosomes from each parentone set from the mother and one from the father.
Gametesreproductive cells, are haploid [n]: They have one set of chromosomes. Gametes are produced by meiosis of a diploid germ line cell. During meiosis, the matching chromosomes of father and mother can exchange small parts of themselves crossoverand thus create new chromosomes that are not inherited solely from either parent. When a male and a female gamete merge fertilizationa new diploid organism is formed. Some animal and plant species are polyploid [Xn]: They have more than two sets of homologous chromosomes.
Plants important in agriculture such as tobacco or wheat are often polyploid, compared to their ancestral species. Wheat has a haploid number of seven chromosomes, still seen in some cultivars as well as the wild progenitors. The more-common pasta and bread wheat types are polyploid, having 28 tetraploid and 42 hexaploid chromosomes, compared to the 14 diploid chromosomes in the wild wheat. Karyotype Karyogram of a human male In general, the karyotype is the characteristic chromosome complement of a eukaryote species.
Although the replication and transcription of DNA is highly standardized in eukaryotesthe same cannot be said for their karyotypes, which are often highly variable. There may be variation between species in chromosome number and in detailed organization.
Jesus was crucified by the secular and religious authorities of His day. In many cases, most of the people who make up a scientific consensus are not even well informed on the relevant technical issues.
Quite often they have never even examined the other point of view or the conflicting evidence. Therefore, when Christians are defending the Christian faith in terms of specific scientific claims, we need to remember the power that group-think can have on even the highest human authorities. The Church needs to honestly examine both sides of the scientific issue at hand but must also carefully consider the spiritual dimensions of the issue and must examine the moral posture of the antagonists.
When scientific authorities challenge fundamental Church doctrines, they act as if the burden of proof is always on the Church. But it should be just the opposite. How much evidence is needed to justify overthrowing a foundational Church Doctrine?
Is there any human argument sufficient for such a purpose? How much scientific evidence is needed to uphold a fundamental Church Doctrine?
We now have many honest and coherent genetic arguments that support the biblical view of the first family. Part one of this two-part paper will summarize a series of powerful genetic evidences that support the physical reality of Adam and Eve — the first family.
Part two in this same volume will summarize a series of powerful genetic evidences that refute the evolutionary view of early man and the evolutionary perspective regarding the origin of family. Genetic Evidences Supporting the Biblical Perspective of Man and Family Remarkably, when we examine the genetic make-up of modern human populations, we find strong genetic evidence that supports the reality of a literal Adam and a literal Eve.
In addition we see evidence of a literal Fall implying a previously perfect creation. Below we will outline seven Bible-affirming genetic evidences.What is a Chromosome?
Because most of the people who will read this paper are not geneticists, it is helpful to review some genetic terms. The human body is like an extremely sophisticated robotic system that is programmed to do everything that is required for sustaining life. Due to the sheer complexity of the system, the hardware and software that enable human life is probably beyond human understanding. Much of the programmed information required to sustain the human body and mind is stored in the genome.
The genome is like a large library of information, or, even better, a computer operating system. It is written out in a molecule called DNA, which consists of long text strings of molecular letters nucleotides. The human genome consists of two complete sets of information — each with more than 3 billion letters. The genome is broken down into 23 different pairs of chromosomes — which are like individual book volumes of the library. Each chromosome has thousands of genes — which are like book chapters.
Each gene consists of 50, to 1 million letters nucleotides — and is really more like an executable computer program that the chapter of a book. Mutations are like word-processing errors. When a mutation happens, a specific letter a nucleotide that helps encode a necessary biological function ; is accidentally replaced by a different incorrect letter.
All the information in the genome including the mutations is passed from cell to cell as the body develops, and eventually from parent to child. The small mitochondrial chromosome is exceptional in that it is only passed down through the mother, yielding a historical record of the matrilineal lineage of humanity.
The Y chromosome is exceptional in that it is only passed down from father to son, yielding a historical record of the patrilineal lineage of humanity. These two small chromosomes have become the two most important tools for exploring human ancestry and for drawing conclusions about human history. Genetic evidence that there was a literal Eve, the mother of us all. But now all geneticists agree that there is but one mother of us all.
Figure 1 illustrates how accumulating mutations within our mtDNA have caused each one of us to divergence from the original Eve sequence. As time passes, we are all slowly getting further and further from the original Eve sequence as mutations accumulate. Can we account for this amount of mutation arising within a biblical timeframe? The most recent estimate of the mutation rate within the human mitochondrial DNA is about 0.
If mutation rates were faster in the past, and there are multiple ways for this to happen, it would require even less time to accumulate mutational differences. But the actual average distance is just 22 mutations — reducing the required time by four-fold. This means that even if many of the mutations were being removed by natural selection, there would still plenty of time for this much mutational damage to accumulate in a biblical timeframe.
The Bible states that all people on earth can trace their ancestry to a single woman, Eve. Thus, we would predict that a single ancestral mitochondrial sequence should be readily recognized within every human being, and this is exactly what is seen. In fact, given standard evolutionary assumptions, there should be many ancient mitochondrial types.
It is claimed that humanity first came out of Africa over 1 million years ago and diverged into Homo erectus populations in Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Over this much time, each continent would have its own distinctive mitochondrial sequence.
DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
Much later, when Homo sapiens emerged out of Africa, we supposedly mated with Homo erectus derivatives such as the Neanderthals and the Denisovansgiving ample opportunity for the addition of more Y chromosome and mitochondrial lines into the human population. Most importantly, global coalescence requires maintenance through deep time of a single unified breeding population with perfectly random mating. The coalescence calculation fails when given biologically realistic conditions where there are isolated sub-populations tribes.
The reality is that, historically, people have always spread out, distanced themselves from competing populations, sorted themselves into tribes, and preferentially mated within local populations.
Obviously, people in Australia in ancient times were not normally mating with people in Africa. This means evolutionary coalescence cannot realistically be applied globally in terms of early mankind. It is actually very unreasonable to expect a clear evolutionary Eve sequence, given what we know about human reproduction. This leads us to a remarkable conclusion — A real woman, who lived less than 10, years ago, is the mother of all of humanity. We know her mtDNA sequence.
Within each one of us is a slightly-mutated version of her original sequence. Evolutionists have chosen to call her Eve, to which we heartily agree. The historical Eve consensus sequence sits at the center of over modern human sequences. There are three concentric circles, with the thicker middle one representing the average divergence from the Eve sequence. The outer and inner circles represent plus or minus one standard deviation.
People are on average only 22 mutations removed from Eve, but some are closer and some farther away, as expected from random mutation. Given the current mitochondrial mutation rate, this amount of mutational divergence from Eve would be expected to arise in just a few thousand years. Genetic evidence that there was a literal Adam, the father of us all.
All parties now agree that there is only one paternal ancestor for all people on earth. Many of the same arguments that we outlined in the Mitochondrial Eve section above also apply to Y-chromosome Adam, so we will not restate them. Even though biblically the MRCA of all living men would be Noah, we will use the term Y-chromosome Adam instead because that is the term with which most people are familiar Noah and Adam were only ten generations apart and so would have had Y chromosomes that were essentially identical.
Contrary to all evolutionary expectations, the uniqueness of the human Y chromosome has been confirmed by the recent re-sequencing of the chimpanzee Y chromosome.
The whole chimp genome now desperately needed to be revised. It appears this has recently been done, but so far the new sequences are not fully available  — with the exception of the chimp Y chromosome. In fact, it is radically different. From an evolutionary perspective, to get this much divergence in just 6 million years would require an impossibly high mutation rate for the Y chromosome.
We need to realize that the hypothetical evolutionary common ancestor of humans and birds would have lived at least million years ago. There is no possibility that this amount of genetic change could have occurred in such a short time. We have used SNP single nucleotide polymorphism or single letter variant data to analyze the Y chromosomes of more than men from multiple modern human populations. The Y-chromosome Adam sequence has in turn allowed us to determine how many mutations separate modern men from Adam.
Today, the Y chromosomes of most modern men are less than mutations removed from Y-chromosome Adam Figure 2. Out of about 30 million sequenced letters in the Y chromosome, this amounts to only 0.
If the Y chromosome mutates extremely rapidly required by evolutionists to explain the vast differences between chimp and human Y chromosomeshow is it possible that all men have nearly identical Y chromosomes, and are so very similar to Y-chromosome Adam?
Even if we assume a fairly low mutation rate for the Y chromosome about 1 mutation per chromosome per generationwe would need less than generations less than ten thousand years to accumulate the observed mutations. However given the actual observed mutation rate, in , years the evolutionary Out-of-Africa modelwe would expect about , mutational differences between modern men and Y-chromosome Adam — at least fold more than what is actually seen.
The biblical timeframe fits perfectly with known human mutation rates and the observed divergence from the Adam sequence.
Genesis and Genetics
But the evolutionary timeframe would create a great deal more Y-chromosome diversity than is actually seen. This new data is showing that Y-chromosome Adam very consistently fits the biblical perspective and is not at all compatible with the evolutionary perspective. We are drawn again to a remarkable conclusion: A real man, who lived less than 10, years ago, is the father of all of humanity.
We know his Y chromosome sequence. Within each male alive today there is a slightly-mutated version of this original DNA sequence. Following the case of Mitochondrial Eve, evolutionists have chosen to call him Adam, to which we again heartily agree. The historical Adam consensus sequence sits at the center of several hundred samples of modern men from diverse people groups.
The There are three concentric circles, with the thicker middle circle representing the average number of mutations that separate these living individuals from the Y chromosome ancestor. Some men are closer and some farther away from Adam, as expected from random mutation. Given the current mutation rate for the Y-chromosome, this amount of mutational divergence from Adam would be expected to arise in less than 10 thousand years. Molecular clocks now put Adam and Eve in the same period — and within a biblical timeframe.
The straightforward use of the molecular clock concept involves: There are two primary underlying assumptions: When we the authors have followed this exact procedure using available mitochondrial data, we see that Mitochondrial Eve lived less than 6, years ago.
Evolutionists do not employ a straightforward use of the molecular clock. They need to reject the actual observed mutation rates which yield dates that they feel are much too recentso instead they must use hypothetical rates that are roughly fold lower than what is actually observed yielding dates fold older for both Adam and Eve.
Dates for Adam and Eve that are based on evolutionary assumptions have been extremely inconsistent over the years, and have been under constant revision. For a long time evolutionists have been arguing that Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosome Adam did not even live in the same timeframe and were separated by tens of thousands of years.
However, evolutionists now widely agree that Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosome Adam lived in the same basic timeframe. Our findings suggest that, contrary to previous claims, male lineages do not coalesce significantly more recently than female lineages. Human genetic uniformity shows there are no races: The genomes of many men and women from all over the world have now been sequenced.
On average, the genomes of any two random people are This was all a big surprise to the scientific community. First, it was expected that over deep time, any sizeable population should accumulate enormous numbers of mutations. So it was expected that mankind, having very deep roots, should have enormous genetic diversity. What was actually seen was that there is remarkably little human genetic diversity — much less diversity than is seen in most other mammals. Second, since the time of Darwin it has been thought that traditional racial distinctions based primarily on skin color reflected major genetic differences.
It was thought that such differences could only have developed through random mutation and natural selection operating over a very long period of time.
It was expected that the races would prove to be genetically very different, and it was thought that the evolution of the races must have happened over very deep time. The actual genetic evidence makes it clear that we are one race, and that we come from a narrow genetic base, that the source population lived quite recently, and that people groups diverged much more recently than previously thought.
All this is remarkably consistent with the biblical perspective, wherein: From a biblical perspective there is no problem with a relatively homogeneous human population. Both bottlenecks were very brief just one generation and were followed by explosive growth, and in both cases there would be almost no previously accumulated mutations — hence no detrimental inbreeding effects. On the other hand, limited human genetic diversity and recent divergence of the people groups is obviously NOT compatible with the evolutionary perspective, and this has forced evolutionists into the story-telling mode — requiring a long series of far-fetched scenarios.
DNA, Genes and Chromosomes — University of Leicester
Although human beings are remarkably similar genetically, we still each have unique gifts and talents. We also each have our own unique set of harmful mutations. It is widely assumed that all human variation arose via random mutations — including all forms of beauty, all forms of genius, and all types of spiritual gifting.
However, any thoughtful person should be able to see that these positive qualities cannot arise via random misspellings within the genome. The Bible teaches us that it is God who gives us these positive qualities they are gifts.
Rationally, this is the most reasonable explanation for these things. As we will show, most human genetic variation can be attributed to designed genetic diversity programmed into the genomes of Adam and Eve. Therefore, we can easily refute the new evolutionary argument that is coming from the theistic evolutionists, which claims that the level of genetic diversity seen in the human race today precludes a literal Adam and Eve.
Several well-known evangelical Christians have stated both in public and in print that Adam and Eve are genetically impossible. Those types of mutation rates are just not possible. It would mutate us out of existence.
It is ironic that, on one hand, evolutionists resort to a recent and extreme genetic bottleneck to explain why there is so little diversity among humans, while on the other hand they claim there is too much diversity to permit a biblical Adam and Eve.
Otherwise all people would essentially be clones of Adam, which would be bad design for many obvious reasons. How much genetic variation could be designed into the genomes of Adam and Eve? The answer might seem surprising; all known single-letter variants SNPs now present within the current human population could have been programmed into two diploid individuals.
Together, Adam and Eve had four sets of chromosomes. Adam and Eve could easily have been heterozygous at million nucleotide sites, but we do not need anything like this to explain modern human diversity. Even now a single person is heterozygous at roughly four million sites and carries a large part of all human variation. There are less than 15 million common SNPs found in all of humanity,  and a single modern couple could account for a very large part of all human variation about 8 million SNPs.
Since most common genetic variations are not associated with disease, most variation could very reasonably be attributed to designed variation. What would prevent God from engineering 25 million variants heterozygous sites into Adam from the very beginning?
If we assume Eve was assigned her own unique genome, this would double the amount of potential designed diversity. There really is no limit to how much diversity God could have designed into Adam and Eve, but we do not need to invoke anything more than simple heterozygosity.
These rare variations are routinely associated with genetic damage. Even though many mutations have accumulated in the genome during human history, it is reasonable to conclude that most observable human genetic variation was created by God.
The biblical perspective has unique explanatory power in terms of giving a credible explanation for the amazing range of human traits and abilities. We all have unique sets of gifts and talents, which very reasonably reflect good design, and for which we can give thanks to God. Figure 3a and 3b: There would have been four original sets of chromosomes in Eden two in Adam and two in Eve.
Each set could have been unique with Eve given her own genomeor Eve could have been a near-clone of Adam two sets of chromosomes in duplicate. With four starting chromosome sets, at any given nucleotide site all four of the possible nucleotides could have been present Figure 3a, three examples shown in red. However, nearly all diversity found in the human genome today is represented by bi-allelic positions Figure 3bwhere any given variant location has but two alternate letters.