Revolutionary Limits: Native Americans [yogaua.info]
Colonial-Indian Relations. By the British had solid colonies established along the New England coast and the Chesapeake Bay. In between were the. The Indians living in the area where Jamestown was settled must have had mixed feelings Their marriage did help relations between Indians and colonists . The French enjoyed much better relations with Native Americans than other all kinds of stories of hostilities between early American colonists and the Native.
InEnglish colonists landed at Jamestown, Virginia. Based on various explorations, the British and French laid claim to the territory comprising present-day West Virginia and Native Americans were forced west.
Many of the tribes were destroyed by constant warfare and catastrophic diseases. At the same time, trade with the Europeans proved a strong attraction, enabling the Indians to acquire valuable new products, such as guns, steel hatchets, cloth, and kettles.
The French and Native American Relations
The fur trade in particular made many tribes powerful and more aggressive. The Indian nations successfully played one European power against another. For instance, the British formed an alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy to cut the French out of the lucrative fur trade.
However, the Six Nations also negotiated treaties and traded with the French. Treaties As part of their negotiations, the British secured three treaties which opened the western Virginia frontier to European settlement: At Lancaster, Virginia negotiators convinced the Six Nations to surrender their land to the "setting sun," which the Confederacy interpreted as the crest of the Alleghenies and the British interpreted as all of western Virginia.
Indians fought among themselves over hunting rights to the territory but the Native American idea of "right" to the land was very different from the legalistic and individual nature of European ownership. John Alexander Williams describes this in his book, West Virginia: A History for Beginners: The Indians had no concept of "private property," as applied to the land. Only among the Delawares was it customary for families, during certain times of the year, to be assigned specific hunting territories.
Apparently this was an unusual practice, not found among other Indians. Certainly, the idea of an individual having exclusive use of a particular piece of land was completely strange to Native Americans.
The Indians practiced communal land ownership. That is, the entire community owned the land upon which it lived. English troops under a young commander, George Washington, were overwhelmed by the French at Fort Necessity, beginning a lengthy war for control of the American colonies.
13f. Revolutionary Limits: Native Americans
While the English had made it clear they intended to settle the frontier, the French were more interested in trade. This influenced the Delaware and Shawnee to side with the French.
Although the Six Nations officially remained neutral, many in the Iroquois Confederacy also allied with the French. The following year, French troops lost Quebec, crippling their military strength.
Native American Clashes with European Settlers
The loss of French military support temporarily calmed tensions between Native Americans and settlers in western Virginia. In the summer ofPontiac, an Ottawa chief led raids on key British forts. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements in present-day Greenbrier County. However, many land speculators such as George Washington violated the proclamation by claiming vast acreage in western Virginia.
The next five years were relatively peaceful on the frontier.
- Colonial-Indian Relations
With the frontier again open, settlers flooded into western Virginia and the speculators made small fortunes in rent on the lands they had acquired. Battle of Point Pleasant The Shawnee had never given up their claims to western Virginia and interpreted the rapid settlement as acts of aggression.
Hostilities reached a climax in when land speculator Michael Cresap led a group of volunteers from Fort Fincastle later renamed Fort Henry at present-day Wheeling and raided Shawnee towns in what became known as Cresap's War.
One of the worst atrocities of the conflict was the murder of several family members of Mingo chief Tah-gah-jute, who had been baptized under the English name Logan. Logan, who had previously lived peacefully with the settlers, killed at least 13 western Virginians that summer in revenge. Native Americans also developed new skills and played important roles in the economic development of Canada.
They had a franchise from the British government to run certain types of trade on the mighty Saint Lawrence River.
Native American Relations
They developed a special skill in rigging the high masts and moorings for the bridges that crossed the Saint Lawrence. They helped to develop the growing tourist trade in the later s. All of this, however, could not disguise the fact that many had lost their traditional lands and way of life. This is not the same thing as saying that they were treated fairly and equally by the British.
The rebellions of and the Durham Report In the s there was large-scale immigration into Canada from Britain and Ireland. Many of the immigrants were ambitious men looking to build a new life for themselves, away from the restrictions which they felt held them back at home. In Britain it was hard to get on if you belonged to certain religions, or if your family were not wealthy or from a certain class. Immigrants enjoyed the freedom they gained in Canada to build new farms or businesses.
However, they soon resented the fact that they had little political power, and the British government back in London made decisions that affected them, but did not consult them.
Image 1 Part of a map designed to show emigrants that land was available in Canada. It was published in by the Canada Company. The rebellion was not large in scale, and it was quickly defeated, but it had important results. The British government appointed the Earl of Durham to investigate the reasons for the revolts and to suggest ways to make the situation better.
After the investigation, the Earl produced a document that became known as The Durham Report.
He found that the settlers were upset that, although they had their own Assemblies Parliamentsthe British Governor and his Legislative Council could ignore them. As a result of the report, the British gave the settlers in Canada what they wanted - effectively self-rule, with the union of Upper and Lower Canada in Canada's timber and shipbuilding industries were important.
So were naval bases like the one at Halifax in Nova Scotia. The British learnt the lesson of and generally gave in to the settlers on the question of letting them rule themselves. This was a noticeable contrast with their attitudes to India and South Africa. There was a war between Britain and the USA in