Analyses of mentioned teacher and student behavior show a friendly . define the teacher–student relationship “as the generalized interpersonal as much as possible on the children who do want to [learn] and as little as. Parents asfacilitators ofpreschool children's peer relationships. Unpublished doctoral Children's interpersonal behaviors and the teacher–child relationship. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Children's interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship | Relations between kindergartners' (N = ; M age.
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Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Ahammer I, Murray J. The influence dimension reflects to what extent and how often a teacher controls communication in class. In this dimension we distinguish between dominance D and submission S poles. The proximity dimension indicates to what extent a teacher cooperates with students. Within this dimension the poles are cooperation C and opposition O. Combinations of these four poles and the two dimensions lead to eight possible sectors describing teacher interpersonal behaviour.
Scores between 0 and 1 are measured for each sector of teacher behaviour. The higher the score appears on the scale the more a teacher shows behaviours from that sector. We are using this questionnaire to pinpoint relationships within the classroom environment.
This questionnaire is completed by the teacher. The information obtained by means of the questionnaire includes perceptions of the behaviour of the teacher towards the students as a class. This makes it possible to measure the perceptions relating to in-class teacher behaviour. Den Brok confirms the reliability of this instrument.
The detailed typology linked with this questionnaire is the result of a far-reaching operationalisation of interpersonal teacher behaviour. To promote the workability of this typology, we would like to introduce a reduction of sectors.
The strong interdependency between the eight sectors of this circumplex model makes a simplification of typology necessary before analysis. This simplification is based on a cluster analysis with the statistical programme Permap.
Using this cluster analysis the perceptions of teachers are classified into two basic dimensions. This allows us to place the seventy-seven items of the questionnaire into four quadrants. The dominance-cooperation quadrant, the submission-cooperation quadrant, the submission-opposition quadrant and the dominance-opposition quadrant can be distinguished. Each item has a value on the dominance-submission continuum of the influence dimension. Alsofor each item a value from cooperation to opposition can be read from the proximity dimension.
The different types of questions visualised in Figure 2 are based on the traditional association of the items to the eight sectors Brekelmans, We conclude from Figure 2 that a simplification of the circumplex model to two dimensions is warranted. We note a rather strong orientation of initial items of the submission-cooperation quadrant to the dominance pole. These items can be focal to the optimum purpose of the questionnaire. The questionnaire on teacher wellbeing Aelterman et al.
In the qualitative part, teachers were asked to mention all possible indicators of their wellbeing at school. This inventory was linked with theoretical models from the literature which resulted into a pilot version of the questionnaire. The results of this pilot version led in the quantitative part to some adjustments to make it more valid and reliable.
Afterwards a confirmative factor analysis, with the statistical programme LISREL, was performed and a more simplified model was derived.
The most important factor is teacher efficacy which includes the feeling of success in his profession and of being appreciated. Teachers have the feeling that they can control the class, that students listen to them, that they have a good relationship with the students, that they succeed in motivating the students to study independently.
They have a feeling of success in developing cognitive and social skills. The questions asked reflect the importance of this crucial factor. The indicator support from the school board means having an employer who is interested in its teachers at a personal level. Finally, teachers who are student oriented find dealing with students the most satisfying aspect of their job. Teachers who also completed the questionnaire on teacher interaction, were asked to fill in this questionnaire about their wellbeing.
Years of experience is defined as the continuous independent variable. All four quadrants of teacher interpersonal behaviour are considered as dependent variables. We are examining differences in interpersonal teacher behaviour linking these differences to teacher characteristics.
Male teachers mention more dissatisfied and uncertain behaviour in comparison with their female colleagues. This effect is found for dominant-cooperating and submitting-cooperating teacher behaviour Table 1. For these two types of interpersonal teacher behaviour we find that male teachers with children score significantly higher. The score for dominant-cooperating interpersonal teacher behaviour stays the same for female teachers with or without children and is near the score for male teachers without children Figure 3.
The submitting-cooperating scores for female teachers are also very similar to those of their male colleagues who have no children Figure 4. Male teachers without job security perceive themselves more as a leader with helpful and friendly interpersonal behaviour in comparison to their colleagues Figure 5. Whether a teacher with job security has children or not, has no influence on how dominant-cooperating he perceives himself.
We want to examine the link between these two main points of interest. Does the wellbeing of a teacher differ according to personal characteristics and his interpersonal behaviour? Here again gender, parental status, job security and years of experience are the teacher characteristics that are taken into account. There is a positive relationship, which means that teachers with many years of experience have a higher score on wellbeing Table 3.
Secondly, a significant relationship is found between dominant-cooperating interpersonal teacher behaviour and the wellbeing of the teacher Table 2.
A negative relationship indicates that teachers with a high score in the submission-opposition quadrant have a low score on their wellbeing Table 3. Moreover, teachers situated in the dominance-cooperation quadrant have a higher wellbeing, while teachers situated in the submission-opposition quadrant score significantly lower. Discussion The focal point of this study is the teacher, more precisely on how the teacher's characteristics influence his interpersonal behaviour within a classroom setting.
Aside from this point of focus we are also looking at the relationship between interpersonal teacher behaviour and his wellbeing. Results of the analyses indicate that teacher gender results in significant differences in the teacher's view of his own interpersonal behaviour.
Children's interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship.
It would appear that male teachers score higher within the submission-opposition quadrant than do their female counterparts. One possible explanation could be that male teachers express themselves in a more extreme fashion in the influence and proximity dimensions than do their female colleagues.
This is most obvious when considering dissatisfied and uncertain behaviour. A second reason, and one that follows from the first, is that female teachers are more likely to consider what is expected of them on a social level when it comes to submitting-opposing behaviour. It is self-evident that teachers will not declare automatically that they feel uncertain or dissatisfied with their own interpersonal classroom behaviour.
Thirdly it seems that some questions regarding the submission-opposition quadrant attempt to measure personal characteristics rather than interpersonal relationships.
As a consequence these results appear to indicate that male teachers suffer professional burnout at a higher rate. This leads to higher scores on questions measuring dissatisfied and uncertain behaviour in the classroom. Yet, this does not measure their interpersonal relationships with students. Male teachers measure the higher scores within the submission-opposition quadrant and simultaneously score significantly higher within the dominance-cooperation quadrant when parental status and job security are taken into account.
This seeming contradiction could confirm the suggestion of extreme position taking of males. The result for women is not just significantly lower overall, parental status appears not to be a factor.
Female teachers view the fact that they may or may not have children of their own irrelevant when it comes to dominant-cooperative interpersonal relationships with their students. Specifically, positive indicators of affective TSRs comprise closeness, support, liking, warmth, and trust. In contrast, negative indicators comprise conflict, anger, and dislike.Teacher tips- Building relationships with your students
According to stage—environment fit theory, individual development requires an interpersonal relationship that has trust, support, caring, self-expression, self-choice, and self-determination; in cases where. A teacher who did not provide these interpersonal relationships and opportunities created an environmental mismatch with individual development, thus leading to students showing EBPs Wang, ; van Lier et al.
Moreover, many empirical studies have found that positive indicators of TSRs were negatively correlated with students' EBPs Gest et al. However, correlations varied across studies. To resolve this issue, several researchers have summarized research results with reviews Baker et al. Their limitations include convenience samples, various sample sizes, or ignoring moderators, which led to inconsistencies and low reliability.
Our review of past empirical studies showed that many effect sizes were heterogeneous, suggesting that moderating factors might account for different links between affective TSRs and students' EBPs.
Thus, we hypothesized that one or more variables may moderate the effect sizes of the correlation between affective TSRs and students' EBPs, such as differences in students' cultures, ages, genders, and the report types of EBPs. First, we examine whether students' culture as a latent variable moderates the link between affective TSRs and students' EBPs Chang et al. Baker found a moderate correlation between closeness and students' EBPs among Western students; however, Lywhose sample included Eastern students, found a weak correlation between the two factors.
Many studies found a strong correlation between conflict and students' EBPs among Western students Doumen et al.
Thus, in accordance with these findings, this study tests whether the correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs for Western students is stronger than that for Eastern students, and whether the correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs for Western students is weaker than for Eastern students. For example, previous studies indicated that positive indicators for affective TSRs and students' EBPs varied among students in kindergarten lower primary grades LPGand higher primary grades Silver et al.
Raters with different ages, standpoints, values, and degrees of understanding a student might rate his or her EBPs inconsistently Van Lier et al.
Moreover, several studies have found that different raters might account for the lack of coherence in research on the link between affective TSRs and students' EBPs. For example, some previous studies have relied on EBPs rated by students, which were only weakly related to positive indicators of affective TSRs Troop-Gordon and Kopp, ; Li et al. In contrast, other researchers found that student EBPs rated by teachers were strongly related to negative indicators of affective TSRs Palermo et al.
Female students tend to have more affective TSRs than male students do Spilt et al. As a result, gender might influence the correlation between positive or negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs.
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Several empirical studies have showed gender differences in the link between indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs, such as closeness, support, and warmth Ostrov and Crick, ; Spilt et al. Indexed keywords primarily included terms reflecting affective TSRs relationship scloseness, warmth, support, empathy, trust, sensitivity, conflict, negativity, and anger and students' EBPs behavior problems, externalizing, aggression, conduct problem, hyperactivity, and oppositional.
When articles could not be found online, we obtained full-text versions of articles from libraries. All articles obtained were written in English. We used inclusion and exclusion criteria to analyze and filter the collected studies. Literature Exclusion Criteria We included articles based on the following criteria: Table 1 summarizes the studies included in the Meta-Analysis.
Studies included in the meta-analysis. Coding Study To facilitate meta-analysis, feature coding was conducted on 57 articles. We considered the following variables: The following criteria guided the coding procedure: When coding was complete, based on principles of meta-analysis Lipsey and Wilson,effect sizes between affective TSRs and students' EBPs were calculated for each sample.
A fixed effects model calculated the homogeneity test and mean effect. Averaged weighted within- and between-inverse variance weights correlation coefficients of independent samples were used to compute mean effect sizes. Moderators were decided by the homogeneity test, which revealed variance in effect sizes between different samples' characteristics. This study used meta-analysis to test whether each moderator accounted for the variation in the effect sizes.
In these reviewed studies, 73, students participated, and the sample sizes ranged from 20 to Furthermore, a fixed effects model was used to homogenize the analysis.