Counselling: Meaning, Techniques, Types and Problems
Explain the key contextual factors which have an impact on counselling for maternal Analyse the effect these factors may have on the counselling relationship. Counselling is a dynamic and purposeful relationship between two people who The client knows what is best for him and the counselor is the catalyst in the process of .. with the public is separate from the confidential nature of counselling relationships. . It is not possible to respond to all of the counsellee's problems. This applies to all forms of counselling and psychotherapy, and regardless This unique nature of the therapeutic relationship means that it is unlike What is clear however, is that the therapeutic relationship - how therapist.
The listener, often feeling overwhelmed by the criticism, tended to avoid future encounters. He hypothesized that we were biologically programmed to respond defensively to criticism, and therefore the listener needed to be trained in-depth with mental exercises and methods to interpret as love what might otherwise feel abusive.
His method is Cinematic Immersion. After 30 years of research into marriage John Gottman has found that healthy couples almost never listen and echo each other's feelings naturally.
What's more, Gottman noted, data from a Munich study demonstrated that the reflective listening exercise itself didn't help couples to improve their marriages. To teach such interactions, whether as a daily tool for couples or as a therapeutic exercise in empathy, was a clinical dead end.
Emotions bring the past alive in rigid interaction patterns, which create and reflect absorbing emotional states. As one of its founders Sue Johnson says, Forget about learning how to argue better, analysing your early childhood, making grand romantic gestures, or experimenting with new sexual positions.
Instead, recognize and admit that you are emotionally attached to and dependent on your partner in much the same way that a child is on a parent for nurturing, soothing, and protection.
‘The Relationship is the Therapy.’ - Acorn Therapy - counselling and complementary therapies
The basic principles for a counselor include: Provide a confidential dialoguewhich normalizes feelings To enable each person to be heard and to hear themselves Provide a mirror with expertise to reflect the relationship's difficulties and the potential and direction for change Empower the relationship to take control of its own destiny and make vital decisions Deliver relevant and appropriate information Changes the view of the relationship Improve communication Set clear goals and objectives As well as the above, the basic principles for a couples therapist also include: To identify the repetitive, negative interaction cycle as a pattern.
To understand the source of reactive emotions that drive the pattern. To expand and re-organize key emotional responses in the relationship. To facilitate a shift in partners' interaction to new patterns of interaction. To create new and positively bonding emotional events in the relationship To foster a secure attachment between partners.
Counselling should be treated as the basic employee assistance because it is required by many employees as well as executives. Most of them suffer from emotional imbalance, stress, and drug, alcohol and other such ills. Counselling is a problem oriented interaction process with the aim of increasing learning and changing behaviour. At the workplace employees need counselling in respect of wage problem, absenteeism, relations with superiors.
Scope of counselling should not be limited to work related problems alone. The marital problems, financial problems, problems with children and other psychological issues need counselling. These problems also affect employee performance at the plant or office.
The employees who are about to retire need counselling. Counselling in respect of career building is also necessary Career counselling programme help employees with career transition of all kinds. Human resource manager can provide this service through expert employed for the purpose. Expert in career counselling require counselling skills, information inventory in respect of counsellee such as attitudes, motive, training, experience, strength and weaknesses, career option and path in and outside the organisation.
Career counsellor can set employees career on right path. The effective counselling needs counselling skills, complete information about the persons to be counselled i.
PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING | Mikidadi J Rwechoka - yogaua.info
After gathering complete information through various sources the counselling services be provided to the person. The techniques of counselling cannot be uniformly adopted. They vary from person to person and also depend on circumstances.
Counselling is not a modern phenomenon it is practiced since the evolution of mankind. Only the need of it is very severely felt in modern times. Counselling is a two way process. Counsellor can help the counsellee if he cooperates with counsellor and open his heart to him, otherwise counselling becomes a difficult task.
However, there are certain techniques of counselling that can be followed and adopted as per the need of the situation and counsellee. The following are some of the techniques: Some people are more emotional. They become so at everything. They take things emotionally and they come into the grip of emotions very often.
The emotions are associated with fear, respect, insult, anxiety, guilt, hostility etc. If the counsellee is under emotional tension it is to be released. The counsellee is to be taken into confidence and listen to him carefully as if counsellor is the only caretaker of him.
Try to know the real causes of his emotional breakdown. When he will narrate the causes, gradually he will overcome the pain and embarrassment related with his guilt.
He is caught in emotional whirl, may be because of guilty feeling resulting out of non fulfillment of promises or he has been insulted by someone.
Discharging the counsellee of emotional tensions is a very difficult job and needs patience from counsellor. Only the expert counsellor can do the job of releasing emotional tensions. Releasing emotional tension is a process of getting out of your mind and heart. Release of emotional tension helps to gain power of going through or looking into and understanding the things in their proper perspective and the reasons that has affected his behaviour.
He will then make an analysis of the situation and overcome the emotions and whisk away the tension. Coming under the influence of emotions is a human weakness present in almost all the human beings. When he overcomes this weakness he realizes that he was unnecessarily caught up in the emotional grip which was impractical and far away from the facts. Effective two way communication help subordinates to narrate their difficulties to their superiors through which many problems get automatically solved.
Supervisor can perform the job of counselling. Effective two way communication remove fear from the minds of the subordinates and they talk freely and open up their mind to the superior who can render necessary advice then and there and can help him getting the tension of any kind released. Supervisor as counsellor understand what the employee means to say through communication with him.
Communication thus is a tool and a method of counselling. The counsellor supervisor should take a note that he should abstain from stressing his own point of view on the counsellee employee. Similarly misunderstanding and misconception can be removed. One should think positively and shun negative thinking. It is negative thinking needs to be removed from the mind of counsellee.
The Relationship Between the Counsellor and the Client
Negative thinking helps developing misunderstanding, distrust and lies. Counsellor should develop new pattern of thinking. Counsellee should be motivated and encouraged to think positively. Positive thinking helps building up cordial relationship with the colleagues and superiors.
- Couples therapy
- Why the therapeutic relationship matters
- The Importance of the Relationship in Counseling and Psychotherapy
Manager should develop cordial relationship with his subordinates not only for counselling but also for his success in the organisation. As the name suggests it relates with the performance. If the employee is not keeping his performance constant and it is below standard then counselling is required to maintain the standard level of performance.
Performance gets affected by many reasons. Those reasons must be spotted by the counsellor and try to remove them from the counsellee. If he is taking leaves and remaining absent citing petty reasons from the work he should be taken into confidence and remove the reasons for remaining absent.
Counselling Against Alcoholism and Drug: Alcoholism and drugs especially alcoholism in India is the major problem. It severely affects the productivity and cost that affects the organisation quite heavily. Alcohol and drug users remain absent frequently and consume more sick leaves as compared to other employees.
They feel tardiness at the workplace and make their departure early. They cannot judge properly and cannot make decisions and very prone to accidents. Serious efforts on the part of the organisation and the counsellors are needed to bring back alcoholics and drug addicts on the track.
They should be treated properly. Counsellor should develop friendship with them and take them into confidence and convince them of the benefits of not drinking and make aware against the health hazards of alcohol and drugs. Organisations must take lead in arranging for counselling and sponsor programmes for treatment of alcoholics and drug addicts. Alcoholics should be motivated not to drink and lectures by experts of religious and spiritual nature will also help them to get rid of their bad drinking habits.
It is very difficult for alcoholics to get rid of his drinking habits. It is also equally difficult for counsellor to convince him to abstain from drinking.
But dark cloud has a silver lining. If he is properly educated of the better life free from alcohol he will lead a normal life. The following are the types of counseling: Under directive counselling the counsellor issues certain instructions to the counsellee or he is directed to do certain things e.
Under non directive counselling counsellor does not issue directions but observe the behaviour and attitude of the counsellee towards his work and his colleagues and superiors and subordinates. If he errs then counsellor comes to his rescue and corrects him realizing him that he was wrong. He will not issue him any instructions or will not direct him. This is a kind of counselling that can be done through extending full cooperation to the counsellee and makes him realize his mistakes relating to his behaviour and attitudes so that he himself will be back on the track and improve himself.
It is winning the heart of the counsellee through cooperation. His confidence will be won by the counsellee and he in turn will extend his cooperation and become self disciplined. Marital and Family Counselling: Employees need counselling in respect of marriage and family problems.
The troubled employees can discuss out their problems with the counsellor who can take them into confidence and prescribe solutions for their ills. There are several problems with which the employees and subordinates are infested.
Some employees come across problems others do not. None is born with a problem. Only a few are problem employees. These problems need recognition and study. The employees ridden with these problems need counselling. These problems can be removed from the employees. This is very essential because problem employees cannot work properly, commit mistakes and are usually accident prone. This leads to low productivity and losses to the organisation.
For rehabilitating and improving problem employees counselling becomes essential. He has to use a suitable technique for the purpose. The following are the problems that need counselling: Some employees suffer from inferiority complex. The employees who suffer from this complex consider themselves as incompetent as compared to others. Or they could be harmful, such as putting cow dung on the umbilical cord.
Whether helpful, harmless or harmful, you should try to better understand the practice and belief. Where practices are helpful, they should be encouraged. Where harmless, there is no point in discouraging them. You may find you get more respect and better support from the community if you respect their harmless practices which may have great significance to them and their cultural and social context.
Discuss with women, their families and others in the community those practices which are harmful or which could endanger the health of the mother or newborn. Listen to their explanations about the practice and discuss the reasons why the practice is harmful. In many situations a replacement harmless practice can be substituted, instead of the harmful practice. However, health workers can play an important role in stimulating discussions on these issues in the community.
Gender roles Two of the differences between men and women are sex and gender. Sex is the physical, biological difference between women and men. It refers to whether people are born female or male. Gender, is not physical like sex. Gender refers to the expectations people have from someone or a community because they are female or male. Gender attitudes and behaviours are learned and the concept can change over time. Sex is biologically determined while gender is socially determined in terms of the roles and responsibilities that society or family assigns to women and men.
Men and women usually accept the roles defined and perpetuated by their community which can have both advantages and disadvantages for them. There are many factors that influence gender roles.
Understanding the gender roles in the community can help you to better understand the situation of the women and men you counsel, and thus improve your counselling interactions. Men should not do housework. Men should not cry. Women should not disagree with their husbands.
Women should keep their bodies covered. Women should not drink alcohol. How are women and men expected to think, feel and act in your community? How do they learn to do this?
Gender roles are learned from a young age as parents may treat girls and boys differently. In addition, children often copy the behaviour of their parents. Many women find the gender role of wife, mother and housekeeper very satisfying, providing them with status in the community.
However, it can be a disadvantage to other women who want to have only a few children or want to pursue a career or other interests.
Some women manage to combine a number of different roles. For the family and the community it can be beneficial for women to look after the children and remain at home, but it could also be a disadvantage as women who have paid employment could bring other benefits to the family and community.
Gender roles also teach men and women to express themselves differently. Women are often allowed to be more emotional whereas men are taught to keep their feelings inside.Experiences of Counselling Part 2: Developing the Counselling Relationship (1 of 2)
Men may get less support when they have problems due to expected gender roles. Sometimes it will be important for you to counsel men and it will be particularly important to take into account the community's norms for gender roles as you do so. For example, a woman may want her partner or husband to be present when she gives birth but the man may feel pressure from others in the community or fear the reaction of others in a community where this is not usual practice.
Similarly we can see examples of gender roles in the community. In some communities the opinions of men may be valued more highly than women's opinions. Women may not be encouraged to speak or participate in discussions. This means that the community hears more about what men think about problems and issues. The community or family may not benefit in this situation as women's knowledge and experience are undervalued or overlooked.
You may need to be aware of this when you work with communities, in order to support women to share information, and discuss their knowledge.