Lesson 1: Introductions & Greetings | Yes German
Search for: Learn German me to meet you.”) Markus: Nice to meet you, too. The pronoun went from you informal (du) to you formal (Sie). In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction is a contrast, within one language, between various forms There previously was one with the pronouns thou and you, with the familiar . The study considered mainly French, Italian, Spanish and German. . The boundaries between formal and informal language differ from language to . If you meet someone new in Germany you can't say "Du" right away. In the German office it was more formal, you would use family names and SIe. .. formal ("Sie" and last name) and completely informal ("du" and first name). .. ' Sie' can (and should) be used as the formal form of the second singular person pronoun.
However, other playwrights of the time made less use of T—V contrasts than Shakespeare. The infrequent use of T in popular writing earlier in the century such as the Paston Letters suggest that the distinction was already disappearing from gentry speech.
In the first half of the 17th century, thou disappeared from Standard Englishalthough the T—V distinction was preserved in many regional dialects. When the Quakers began using thou again in the middle of the century, many people were still aware of the old T—V distinction and responded with derision and physical violence.
In the 19th century, one aspect of the T—V distinction was restored to some English dialects in the form of a pronoun that expressed friendly solidarity, written as y'all. Unlike earlier thou, it was used primarily for plural address, and in some dialects for singular address as well.
The pronoun spread rapidly to White speakers in those southern states, and to a lesser extent other regions of the US and beyond. This pronoun is not universally accepted, and may be regarded as either nonstandard or a regionalism. It also occurs in Scouse the regional dialect of the Liverpool area.
German pronouns - Wikiversity
French[ edit ] In Old French texts, the pronouns tu and vous are often used interchangeably to address an individual, sometimes in the same sentence. However, some emerging pattern of use has been detected by recent scholars. However, tu was sometimes used to put a young man in his place, or to express temporary anger.
There may also have been variation between Parisian use and that of other regions. In the Middle French period a relatively stable T—V distinction emerged. Vous was the V form used by upper-class speakers to address one another, while tu was the T form used among lower class speakers. Upper-class speakers could choose to use either T or V when addressing an inferior.
Inferiors would normally use V to a superior. In poetry, tu was often used to address kings or to speak to God.
German I Tutorial: Basic German Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar
In some circumstances, it is not unusual to call other people by first name and the respectful form, or last name and familiar form. For example, German teachers use the former construct with upper-secondary students, while Italian teachers typically use the latter switching to a full V-form with university students.
This can lead to constructions denoting an intermediate level of formality in T—V-distinct languages that sound awkward to English-speakers. You shouldn't just use Du only if it's a child. Again they could think you don't respect them because of their younger age or lower rank.
You have to actively offer "Du" so they have a chance to decline. You also have to consider that it can be frowned upon if you offer "du" to lower ranking people at your job, because some people believe that you shouldn't get to friendly with people you outrank to have a serious working relationship.
If you are not sure whether to use "du" or "Sie", it is safer to use "Sie". Or you try to avoid directly addressing them which is basically a walk on eggshells. By the way it's not common to go back to "Sie". If then only if someone overstepped earlier and used "du" without the other being comfortable with it or if a colleage really lost your trust.
T–V distinction - Wikipedia
Sometimes the first name combined with "Sie" is used. This is usually bosses and their younger female assistants, like at a doctor's office. It shows that there's a difference in rank. I don't like that version much I think it's a bit condescending. I do think there's a change going on in Germany. There are many young people that are much more comfortable with the "Du" now and it's used more often at work but I think it's still important to know about the rules because you never know how conservative people you're talking to are.