Meeting of Fresh and Salt Water in the Qur'an - WikiIslam
Estuaries are the borderlands between salt and freshwater environments, and they are incredibly diverse both biologically and physically. A place where Fresh Water and Salt Water Meet is called a Halocline. When Salt and Fresh Water mix it is called a mixing zone. Salt-wedge estuaries are the most stratified, or least mixed, of all estuaries. When fresh water and saltwater meet in an estuary, they do not always mix very.
The method involves pumping freshwater and saltwater to a large semipermeable membrane. As a result, the pressure of the saltwater increases. Pressure retarded osmosis PRO power generation. In essence, RED functions like a salt battery. One allows positive sodium to flow through, and the other only permits the passage of negatively charged chlorine.
Since salt is comprised of chlorine and sodium, it is abundant in the oceans. Advertisement Reverse electrodialysis diagram. Endy Nugroho via SlideShare ] Alternating between the sets of filters is a flow of water that creates the difference in concentrations forcing the anions and cations to flow through the membrane. The difference in charge generates a voltage between the two plates that can be transformed into electricity by changing the flow to a lower concentration of salt.
Unfortunately, both methods suffer from severe drawbacks. However, particulate matter organic and inorganic easily lodge the small openings. Furthermore, PRO systems cannot withstand the forces of super-saline waters. Devising a commercial plant is both costly and largely inefficient with current technology. The system is more effective at preventing the membrane from fouling. However, the system lacks the ability to produce substantial amounts of power.
A Renewable Energy Revolution A solution involving a hybrid between two technologies may serve to be an answer for the perplexing problem.
Similar to RED, CapMix relies on electrodes which capture the energy from the voltage that develops when two varying concentrations of ions. However, CapMix specifically uses the difference in salinity levels to generate a charge instead of the flow of chlorine and sodium. For the system to work, saline water flows through a tube where membranes extracted charged particles.
Two charges of opposing force accumulate. Then, a low-saline solution is introduced, causing the electrodes to discharge into the water, consequently generating electricity. The system generates A custom-built flow cell separates the channels of water with an anion-exchange membrane. The system uses copper hexacyanoferrate as an electrode with graphite foil to collect the current. Alternating the flow of saline and fresh water releases the energy and allows it to be harnessed.
The second is you have the chloride transferring across the membrane.
[EPIC PICTURE] Fresh water meet Salt water!
Since both of these processes generate a voltage, you end up developing a combined voltage at the electrodes and across the membrane. A river-estuary-ocean system Making logical deduction based on the verse without using science Let us completely ignore science for the time being.
Rather, let us assume that we are scientifically illiterate. So we use our common sense only and make a series of logical deductions: From the verse it is clear that during the time of Muhammad, people used to drink fresh water from river.
From the verses it is also clear that people knew that sea water is salty and unsuitable for drinking. From the verses it is also clear that people knew that the river meets the ocean.
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This means they knew that although the river meets the ocean, the ocean water is not coming into the river otherwise the river water will taste salty. A naive and vague explanation is that something is happening inside the meeting point of river and ocean i. What is not allowing the ocean to come into the river? Let us again have a look at Figure 1.
A slow transition between river and ocean is taking place. A non-physical partition between the two water bodies is preventing them from coming into each other. A physical partition like an underwater hill is present and this separates the two water bodies. Three possible working principles of an estuary which a layman who has no knowledge of science but has common sense can think of All these cases are shown in Figure 2.
So up to this point, we have not used anything other than common sense, but we have already made a lot of progress. Surely people during the time of Muhammad had common sense. Even if they did not know how an estuary really works, they would have easily figured out that an estuary should behave very similar to all or some of these three cases. Only definite answers can be demanded for scientific claims.
So let us again refer back to Figure 2 and decide which of the cases are closest to this verse. Surely it is either Case 2, Case 3 or both. Why not Case 1? This is because Case 1 is a transition and not a forbidden partition. Still, if one argues that this intermediate water of Case 1 is the forbidden partition and surely many apologists will make this argumentthen we have the following answer: It is evident from common sense that Case 2 is literally a forbidden partition.
Now, Case 1 can only be true if Case 2 is false i. So according to this verse, Case 1 is discarded. Summary of what the verse tells us Let us summarize what the verse tells us. It tells us that: This is Case 2. This is Case 3. This means that the laws of nature will not allow any other circumstances like Case 1.
What we expect elementary science to tell us Firstly, let us ask ourselves what we expect from science. Science should corroborate observational evidences. So if we observe in our daily life that ocean water is not coming into the river we drink river water regularly and its sweet taste remains unchangedscience should explain why this is happening.Salt water meets fresh water
For example, if we observe that leaves are green, science should explain the reason why they are green. If it concludes that leaves are blue, then it is not science.
Harnessing the energy generated when freshwater meets saltwater
So, let us scrutinize Cases 1, 2 and 3 under the light of elementary science. What elementary science tells us Let us assume that we have elementary knowledge of science. We will briefly recapitulate some of our elementary scientific knowledge. Elementary science tells us that if there is a porous membrane separating saline water from fresh water, then by the process of diffusion, the salt water will diffuse into the fresh water.
If this system is kept for a long time, then the entire unit will become a mixture of fresh and salt water brackish water. Elementary science also tells us about miscible and immiscible fluids. Water and oil are immiscible i. It also tells us that salt water and fresh water are miscible fluids water mixes with water.