Evidence-Based Practice and Job Satisfaction of Nurses in Long-Term Care
Items 1 - 27 between job satisfaction and quality of care nurses deliver, and barriers to a quality care. healthcare service with desirable patient outcomes. . American Nurses Association () stated that an optimal staffing model must. J Nurs Adm. Jun;30(6) The relationship of nursing practice models and job satisfaction outcomes. Upenieks V(1). Author information: (1)University. Background: To improve the patient safety among health care sector and One of vital nursing outcome is job satisfaction, which is pretentious by work Hypothesized model explains the proposed relations are represented in Figure 1.
Theoretical framework and relevant research This research integrates ideas from Bass theory of transformational leadership [ 13 ] and structural empowerment theory by Kanter [ 14 ] to study how workplace features effect job satisfaction and outcomes towards patient safety.
Theoretical foundations of the thoughts in the suggested model are described in following paragraphs. Transformational leadership One of relational leadership style is transformational leadership in which employers have faith and admiration for their leadership and they are motivated for doing more than what is officially expected from them to attain organizational objectives [ 13 ].
Transformational leadership entails four basic dimensions: Transformational leadership style has steadily been connected to employee behaviors, conduct and attitudes in both nursing and management backgrounds.
Researchers are of the view that four ways of transformational leadership may help as experience in making working environment organizationally empower. For example, through intellectual inspiration, transformational leaders inspire employees to contribute in the process of decision making, which nurtures skills improvement, knowledge and critical thinking.
Such leadership generates authorizing and empowering environments for nurses by affecting support quality, availability of resources at place of work and information. Behavior of transformational leaders is normally related with greater levels of workers satisfaction [ 16 ], performance of organization, work commitment of the followers [ 17 ], and workers enthusiasm to perform beyond than he was required for achieving assigned goal.
In a research carried out on almost nurses working in seven Canadian critical care hospitals, from Squires et al. In recent times, [ 19 ] established that leaders with transformational can enhance patient care quality by ensuring citizenship behaviors at organizational level and caring practice environment.
Transformational leaders after developing positive interactions and relationship obtain followers trust faith and forestall their requirements by giving accessibility to structural authorizing factors i. Structural empowerment Structural empowerment theory by Kanter [ 14 ] enlightens the ways by adopting which leaders can have impact on workers regarding completion their assigned task successfully by ensuring access to four structures of organization: Support access comprises of supervision and response delivered by subordinates, peers and supervisors.
It also includes emotional and social support from associates. Resources access refers having supplies, materials, time, equipment and money required to accomplish assigned task.
Various researches have been carried out to examine the theory of structural empowerment by Kanter in a diversity of nursing settings and populations. Structural authorization has been linked with hospital management features, for example greater stages of nurse independence and healthier relationships with physicians [ 21 ]. While working in empowering atmospheres, nurses have mutual support and sufficient resources needed for higher quality patient care [ 21 ].
Structural empowerment has emerged as an important predictor for greater job satisfaction in nursing profession [ 2223 ]. Work commitment [ 24 ] organizational faith and obligation [ 25] turnover intents [ 26 ] and improvement in quality care [ 27 ]. Researchers recommended that nurses having transformational leadership traits may have increased organizational empowerment which lead towards improvement in working environments and outcomes of high-quality [ 2829 ].
Adverse patient outcomes The main worry of any health care delivery method, and in principle nursing, is in achieving best patient results [ 30 ]. Researches related to patient outcome has endorsed that most adverse patient results to issues in work atmosphere [ 31 ] and deficiency in visible, efficient and effective leadership [ 2 ].
In succeeding sub investigation of Canadian statistics from this research, similar outcomes were stated [ 28 ]. Nurse care quality ratings offer related yet different patient outcomes information because nurses are almost involved at all patient care points, which create their viewpoint a valued informational source.
In a research of U. Job satisfaction One of vital nursing outcome is job satisfaction, which is pretentious by work atmosphere quality.
Even though the large number of research work which has been conducted on higher job dissatisfaction levels and job contentment, between nurses still continue [ 34, 35 ]. Large number of researches has associated the nurses work atmosphere quality and their job satisfaction [ 2326 ]. Researchers [ 2236 ] have presented strong positive association between job satisfaction amongst nurses and structural empowerment.
Though it is recognized that efficient nursing leadership is the driving strength in healthy work atmosphere creation that raises encouraging nurse and patient results, few empirical researches have been conducted which clearly defined and identified indirect and direct mechanisms by applying which leaders effectively changes in persons and patient results.
The relationship of nursing practice models and job satisfaction outcomes.
This research work draws from research and theory to suggest a theoretical model connecting workplace empowerment and transformational leadership and, consequently, to job satisfaction of nurses and nurses evaluated adverse patient results. Hypothesized model Hypothesized model explains the proposed relations are represented in Figure 1.
Greater job contentment would lead towards lesser adverse patient results hypothesis 4. Conceptual Framework of the Study. Methods Design and sample For testing hypothesized model, cross-sectional predictive survey design was adopted. Qualified participants were only nurses employed in direct patient care environments.
The relationship of nursing practice models and job satisfaction outcomes.
After gaining ethics endorsement, participants were dispatched a survey package on their residential address, including information letter, a questionnaire, along with prepaid envelope having postal address. Respondents were given two choices for participating in research firstly by filling a questionnaire or using online survey.
Using method of Dillman et al. A total of nurses working in 6 long-term care facilities in South Korea self-reported their perception of EBP implementation, barriers to research utilization, and job satisfaction. The level of job satisfaction was higher in nurses who were single, older, more experienced, and had a higher income.
Lower perceived barriers to research utilization were associated with greater job satisfaction. However, there was no significant relationship between a level of EBP implementation and job satisfaction.
Factors influencing job satisfaction included lower barriers to the organization and communication domains of research utilization, being unmarried and older. Decreasing barriers to research utilization may improve the job satisfaction of nurses working in long-term care facilities. Introduction The rapid increase in the aging population has led to concern about the quality of nursing care in long-term care LTC facilities in South Korea.
Nurses are key health- care professionals responsible for providing optimal care to older adults in LTC facilities. However, numerous studies have suggested that nurses working in LTC facilities had low job satisfaction, resulting in strong intentions to leave and high turnover rates . Various factors reportedly influenced the job satisfaction of nurses working in LTC facilities: Also, nurses working in LTC facilities have consistently reported that a lack of professional knowledge on gerontological nursing could lower the quality of care  .
In addition, nurses included in a qualitative study reported that they perceived higher job satisfaction when the health status of elderly patients improved due to the quality of care that they provided .
The conceptual framework that guided the present study was the Nursing Organization and Outcomes Model . This model posits that five dimensions of the nursing practice environment are strong predictors of job satisfaction of nurses: This model was supported by the results obtained in studies performed in acute- care and LTC facilities   .
The foundations for quality care can be achieved by the implementation of EBP. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships among EBP implementation, barriers to research utilization, and job satisfaction of nurses working in LTC facilities. Specific aims were to identify 1 the level of job satisfaction, the level of EBP implementation, and perceived barriers to research utilization, and 2 the factors influencing job satisfaction among nurses working in LTC facilities.
Methods This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Sample and Setting A total of nurses participated in this study. The inclusion criteria were RNs who 1 had worked more than 2 month in the present facility and 2 were aged 20 years or older. The number of bed sizes in the participating facilities ranged from 99 - The job satisfaction of nurses was measured using the Index of Work Satisfaction that was originally developed by Slavitt and colleagues  and translated into Korean by Lee .
This Korean version of the index has been used in many Korean nursing studies  . The total score ranges from 40 towith a higher score indicating greater job satisfaction.
Barriers to Research Utilization. This instrument consists of 28 items in 4 domains: Another item was subsequently added to measure the extent to which English becomes a barrier to research utilization when studies using this measurement were conducted in non-Eng- lish-speaking countries. The internal consistency reliability in the present study ranged from 0.
The analyzed demographic characteristics included age, sex, marital status, education level, monthly wages, years of clinical experience, and position in the present facility.
Ethical Considerations Before the study commenced, the author explained the purpose and procedure of the study to the participants and assured that their participation would be voluntary, and that they could withdraw from the study without any harm or disadvantage.
Data Collection After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board of K university hospital, the author compiled a list of LTC facilities in K province of Korea, and made phone calls to the directors of nursing DONs of those facilities to initiate recruitment. The author visited DONs who agreed to be visited and wanted to hear about this study.
Finally, DONs of 6 facilities agreed to participate in this study after the author explained its purpose and procedures. Nurses who agreed to participate signed and dated consent documents before they completed the study questionnaires. The author posted questionnaires in packages that included stamps for returning the completed questionnaires by mail for nurses who were off duty or on night duty. Frequency, percentage, mean Mand standard deviation SD values were generated to provide descriptive data of the demographic characteristics of the participants and other variables.
Stepwise regression was used to identify factors that significantly influenced job satisfaction. Results Data collected from nurses were analyzed.
Table 1 presents demographic characteristics and their relationships with job satisfaction. The overall mean job satisfaction score was 2. Regarding EBP implementation, only nurses responded the questionnaire.