UN chief Ban Ki-moon in Tehran for the Non-Aligned Movement summit | World news | The Guardian
Shukla, who returned from Tehran where he met Iranian leaders to discuss ways of ending the war, Nonaligned Nations Meet on 3rd World News Reporting. The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War to create an News · Meet Our Experts Subsequently, a preparatory meeting for the First NAM Summit This ambassadorial-level body, based at the United Nations in New On 27 April, Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Dr. Javad. Representatives of nearly nations, including dozens of heads-of-state, have convened in Tehran for a meeting of the Non-Aligned.
Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'. The Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia inand was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another".
According to Rejaul Karim Laskaran ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers". The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V.
Krishna Menon inat the United Nations. The term "non-alignment" was established in at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel five restraints ; these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were: Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. At the Lusaka Conference in Septemberthe member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts.
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) | What is the Non Aligned Movement | NTI
Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries. India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq. The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in Although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement particularly predominantly Muslim states condemned it.
After the breakup of Yugoslaviaa founding member, its membership was suspended  in at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. InMalta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in andrespectively.
A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues. The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations.
In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states,  but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation.
It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The NAM stressed the importance of the IAEA as the main vehicle for the transfer of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and stressed the importance of safeguards and the significance of maintaining the responsibilities of IAEA.
The fourth working paper addressed nuclear testing, stating that NAM welcomes the signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and stresses the importance of achieving universal adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.
If all nuclear-weapon states do this as well, it should contribute to nuclear disarmament. The fifth paper addressed concerns about safeguards, stating that the IAEA is the most appropriate actor to address verification and safeguards issues. The sixth paper addressed verification methods. The NAM stressed the need to achieve worldwide application of the comprehensive safeguards system and encouraged nuclear-weapon states to put their nuclear facilities under the IAEA.
The NAM welcomes all efforts to establish nuclear weapon free zones worldwide and will continue to support all areas that have declared themselves a nuclear free zone.
Finally, the eighth working paper sought to address nuclear disarmament. The paper argued that while the progress on disarmament has been positive, there is still much work to be done in that area, as NAM still sees a heavy reliance on nuclear weapons by the states that hold such weapons. In this statement the NAM called for a balanced and non-discriminatory effort to strengthen all three pillars of the NPT.
NAM also called for nuclear-weapon states and NATO for the complete exclusion of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons from their military doctrines. NAM also strongly supports the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East. NAM further highlighted the obligation of developed countries in the fulfillment of the legitimate right of developing countries to nuclear energy.
During the conference, the Heads of State or Government discussed a variety of issues, The Final Document contained positions on global, regional and sub-regional and development, social and human rights issues. Furthermore, the Heads of States or Government also affirmed the continued adherence to all principled positions and decisions made by the 15th NAM Summit that concluded in The Non-Aligned Movement expressed concern over the difficult and complex situation in disarmament and security and the growth of unilateralism.
The Final Document calls for renewed efforts to achieve nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. The Final Document also expressed concern over the threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear weapons, as well as about the lack of, or slow progress towards disarmament and total elimination of nuclear arms. The Final Document emphasized that any progress made towards nonproliferation and disarmament is a benefit to international security.
It also reaffirmed that global and regional approaches and confidence building measures should be pursued simultaneously. The Final Document reiterated the NAM belief that the Conference on Disarmament is the only multilateral negotiating body on disarmament.
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
The Final Document also called for a strengthened role of the IAEA in preparing for regional and international disasters in nuclear accidents that includes education on crisis management. Furthermore, the Summit condemned Israel for its production of nuclear weapons and demanded that Israel renounce its nuclear weapons and join the NPT at the earliest possible date.
- Non-Aligned Nations Meet in Iran
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- UN chief Ban Ki-moon in Tehran for the Non-Aligned Movement summit
The NAM States stressed the importance of implementing the action plan adopted by the conference. The report included Iranian rational for their reactor and uranium enrichment programs, the status and extent of IAEA inspections, and statements from meetings with the Minister of Foreign Affairs in which Iran reaffirmed its commitment to pursuing peaceful nuclear power while complying with the NPT.
On 25 May H. They also adopted an outcome document outlining their vision of the NAM for the next fifty years, and a commemorative declaration marking the fiftieth anniversary of the NAM's establishment. Those at the meeting also affirmed the admission of Azerbaijan and Fiji into the Movement and prepared for the forthcoming NAM Summit in Tehran in A portion of the conference was dedicated to the issue at hand of Palestinian prisoners in Israel and in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem.
It also called on the UNDC to play a bigger role in facilitating rapid movement to achieve disarmament goals and the Conference on Disarmament CD to agree on a program of work and establish an ad hoc committee on nuclear disarmament. The NAM called for international cooperation in realizing the goals of the fourth disarmament decade, including the issue of small arms and light weapons.
The paper consisted of a three phase plan for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In phase one the NAM called for a treaty banning the production of fissile materialan end to all weapons testing and development of new technologies for upgrading existing weapons systems, a convention prohibiting the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons, the establishment of a nuclear weapons free zone in the Middle East, conclusion of a new START treatyand a moratorium on the production of fissile materials pending the conclusion of a fissile material treaty.
The second phase called for the establishment of a single multilateral comprehensive verification system that included separating nuclear warheads from their delivery vehicles, and transferring nuclear materials to peaceful purposes. The third phase extended beyond calling for the full implementation of a treaty eliminating all nuclear weapons and its verification regime. On 28 April the NAM submitted an additional working paper to the NPT Review Conference covering such issues as nuclear doctrines and sharing, nuclear disarmament and testing, security assurancesnuclear weapons free zones, safeguards and verification, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.
On 3 May Dr. The NAM recognized the new START treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation but noted there needed to be "more concrete uniform and systematic nuclear disarmament efforts involving all nuclear weapons states.
He stated that the final document adopted by the RevCon was "a step forward towards realization of the goals and objectives of the treaty. According to media reports the NAM also expressed support for the nuclear swap declaration between Iran, Turkey and Brazil that was signed in Tehran in May. The deal commits Iran to transfer 1,kg 2, lb of its low-enriched uranium to Turkey in exchange for kg lb of During the General Review Conference of the IAEA on September, the NAM presented a statement arguing that stability in the Middle East would be impossible given the current massive military capability imbalances, particularly in regards to nuclear weapons.
This directly critiqued U.
Egypt also made a statement against "selective approaches" to non-proliferation and the undermining effect on the nonproliferation regime that such an approach has, speaking in reference to a draft resolution presented by the Arab League states entitled "Israeli Nuclear Capabilities. In his statement he emphasized the contribution of the NAM to multilateral efforts to maintain and promote global peace and called for reform of the UN Security Council to better reflect the current political realities.
The letter condemned Israeli military actions and called for immediate cessation of all military activities and violence in accordance with resolution The statement emphasized the importance of decision-making by consensus, called on possessor states to comply with destruction deadlines, and welcomed NAM member Iraq as the newest party to the CWC.
He repeated NAM's call for "an international conference, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of obtaining an agreement on a phased program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time. The Ministerial Meeting reaffirmed the five principles of the NAM and discussed regional and sub-regional political issues, human rights, social and developmental issues, the Responsibility to Protect, in regards to preserving multilateralism, and UN reform.
He asserted that "the status of nuclear-weapons States is NAM leaders announced their continued commitment to the elimination of nuclear weapons, support for nuclear weapon-free-zones, especially in the Middle East, and the use of peaceful nuclear energy. The NAM raised concerns about potential misuse of R2P by expanding its applications to legitimize "invasive unilateralism" in internal affairs of states. The NAM indicated its positions on a variety of nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation issues, with an expectation that they would be taken into account by the UNSC summit.
On 5 October the Indonesian Representative made a statement on behalf of the NAM to the General Assembly on all disarmament and international security agenda items.
He voiced NAM's support for nuclear disarmament, calling on NWS to accomplish the total elimination of nuclear arsenals and to respect the inalienable right of all nations to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The letter expressed the Movement's dissatisfaction with the resolution's emphasis on obligations and controls placed on non-nuclear-weapon states as opposed to nuclear disarmament measures, rejected setting new conditions and prerequisites for nuclear exports that are contrary to the IAEA Statute, and noted with regret that the resolution did not prohibit attacks or threat of attacks against peaceful nuclear.
The purpose of this meeting, requested by the Iranian delegation, was to exchange views on the latest developments regarding the Iranian nuclear issue in advance of an imminent third sanctions resolution.
On 14 February, a letter from the Permanent Representative of Cameroon was circulated, informing members of the nomination by the African Group of H. A Note Verbale was circulated on 19 February setting a deadline for delegations to send comments on this nomination. The Security Council voted to adopt Resolution which continued sanctions on Iran. On 25 March, Mr. The paper called on possessor States to complete the destruction of all chemical weapons including abandoned weapons before the extended deadline.
NAM and China pledged to support activities related to the universalization of the Convention.
Non-Aligned Movement - Wikipedia
On 28 April, H. In this context, the Foreign Minister of Iran briefed the participants on the latest developments on Iran's nuclear issue. The 14th Ministerial Conference was held in Tehran from July. Paragraphs of the final document address disarmament and international security.