Criminology, Penology & Victimology – Usha Jaganath Law Series
This book is the bible for criminology. It gives wide and complete coverage of the subject. The level of the book is for experts and students interested in detailed. Penology is a sub-component of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of Contents. 1 History; 2 See also; 3 References; 4 Further reading; 5 External links Harm in American penology: offenders, victims, and their communities. SUNY Press. p. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Results ranging from policing to penology, from youth crime to green crime, please use the 'forgot password' link below to reset your password and . Textbook. The New World of Police Accountability. Third Edition The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice Victimology and Victim Assistance.
As a simple example, if Alice saw Bob trip over a rock and fall, Alice might consider Bob to be clumsy or careless dispositional. If Alice later tripped over the same rock herself, she would be more likely to blame the placement of the rock situational. Victim proneness or victim blaming can be a form of fundamental attribution error, and more specifically, the just-world phenomenon. We are motivated to see a just world because this reduces our perceived threats,   gives us a sense of security, helps us find meaning in difficult and unsettling circumstances, and benefits us psychologically.
People may even blame the victim's faults in "past lives" to pursue justification for their bad outcome. The theory of victim facilitation calls for study of the external elements that make a victim more accessible or vulnerable to an attack. As part of Hickey's analysis, he categorized victims as high, low, or mixed regarding the victim's facilitation of the murder. Categorization was based upon lifestyle risk example, amount of time spent interacting with strangerstype of employment, and their location at the time of the killing example, bar, home or place of business.
For instance, a study of victim facilitation increases public awareness, leads to more research on victim-offender relationship, and advances theoretical etiologies of violent crime. Another goal of studying victim facilitation, as stated by Maurice Godwin, is to aid in investigations. Godwin discusses the theory of victim social networks as a concept in which one looks at the areas of highest risk for victimization from a serial killer.
Using this process, investigators can create a profile of places where the serial killer and victim both frequent. Each year, data are obtained from a nationally representative sample of 77, households comprising nearlypersons on the frequency, characteristics and consequences of criminal victimization in the United States. This survey enables the government to estimate the likelihood of victimization by rapesexual assaultrobberyassaultthefthousehold burglary, and motor vehicle theft for the population as a whole as well as for segments of the population such as women, the elderly, members of various racial groups, city dwellers, or other groups.
It was created in to ensure the federal government meets its responsibilities to victims of crime. The ombudsman provides information to victims about their rights under Canadian federal lawthe services available to them, or to make a complaint about any federal agency or federal legislation dealing with victims of crime. The ombudsman also works to ensure that policy makers and other criminal justice personnel are aware of victims' needs and concerns and to identify important issues and trends that may negatively impact victims.
Where appropriate, the Ombudsman may also make recommendations to the federal government. They give a much better account for the volume crimes but are less accurate for crimes that occur with a relative low frequency such as homicide, or victimless 'crimes' such as drug ab use.
Attempts to use the data from these national surveys for international comparison have failed. Differences in definitions of crime and other methodological differences are too big for proper comparison. A dedicated survey for international comparison: A group of European criminologists started an international victimization study with the sole purpose to generate international comparative crime and victimization data.
Society as crime victim[ edit ] One train of thought supposes society itself is the victim of many crimes, especially such felonies as murderhomicide and manslaughter. Many lawyers, judges, and academics have espoused this sentiment. Some district attorneys feel they represent all of society, while others feel they represent the victims of the crime. That is, both are involved in the event.
In criminal jurisprudence, mere punishing of offender is not sufficient to redress the grievance of victim; there is need to compensate the loss or harms suffered by the victim.
In Criminal Procedure Code, though provisions have been made in Section to provide compensation to victims, who have suffered loss or harms in consequence to commission of offence.
But, what has been provided in Indian Law, as a compensatory measure to victims of crimes, is not enough and this aspect needs to be reviewed by the legislature to frame or enact necessary law, so as to sufficiently compensate to victims of crimes and to provide safeguards to victims of crimes, besides compensating him in monetary terms.
European Union[ edit ] European Union Victims of gender-based violence and terrorism The Stockholm programme explicitly mentions gender-based violence victims in Sect.
Victims of terrorism are also deemed to be in need. Victim services include free access to legal advice and representation, counselling and monetary compensation. Monetary compensation however is capped and is only available to victims of serious crimes, which is defined as crimes where the offender serves no less than six months imprisonment. The compensation is funded by fines imposed on convicted offenders and other sources.
Applications, phone calls or emails must be made in either English or German which may hinder victims of crime from accessing services fully or understanding their rights without the help of an embassy or consulate. Another breach of the Directive involves the benefits afforded only to Austrian citizens. Austrian citizens are entitled to compensation if they are a victim of crime, even if they suffer an injury in another country, an additional protection for Austrian citizens only.
Due to the limited resources only partly funded by the government, largely reliant on donations of Weissering, any victim seeking compensation will be means tested and assessed on a case by case basis. Emergency assistance may be available in some cases. This indicates that the Austrian Government is trying to raise awareness about victims of crime, specifically in areas that are presenting a current issue in accordance with the Directive  Croatia[ edit ] The rights of victims of crimes in Croatia have been improving steadily since Croatia became a candidate for the European Union in As a result of their wish to become a part of the EU certain prerequisites had to be fulfilled in regards to their criminal justice system and human rights.
Croatia, in order to fulfil said prerequisites, initiated change in their criminal justice system in relation to the rights of victims. These rights include the "right to efficient psychological and other expert help and support from the authority, organisation or institution for aiding victims of criminal offences" and the "right to compensation for material and immaterial damages from the state fund". This act resulted in the ability for Croatian citizens to receive compensation if they have endured serious personal injury.
This move to compensate said victims was a display of the acceptance of the United Nations Security Council's resolution which stated rape could be considered a war crime.
In line with the Crime Victim Compensation Act, Croatia's parliament, inadopted laws awarding victims of rape, committed in the Independence War, compensation. This compensation was in the form of a one off payment, coupled with a monthly allowance and access to free therapy, medical and legal services. This fact can be seen as being particularly relevant to crimes often perpetrated against tourists, such as petty theft.
This is crucial in relation to compensation claims, whereby foreign citizens are not afforded the same access to compensation. Nationals of states party to the European Convention on the Compensation of Victim of Violent Crimes are granted access to compensations, as are nationals of all Member States of the Council of Europe who are permanent residents in Cyprus.
Furthermore, perpetrators are often being convicted under statutes which prescribe a much less serious penalty than other anti-trafficking laws. This decrease in convictions reflects a negative impact on victims of trafficking, who may lack faith in a system of criminal justice which does not adequately identify and punish offenders. These services and support mechanisms are implemented through domestic legislation and not international law.
Victimology - Wikipedia
However, as Denmark is not a signatory they are not obligated to implement the directive. The Victims Compensation Law of allows Danish and foreign citizens as well as Danish citizens living outside of Denmark access to compensation for victims of crime with serious injuries. Compensation for victims of crime is extensive within Denmark. Compensation can be given to those who suffered serious injuries and dependents of homicide victims.
A time period of two years applies for all applications for compensation. For all other crimes the court will decide on free legal services on the grounds of economic situation and necessity.
In addition, every victim whom comes before the system has the right to an interpreter as well as free translation of legal documents from the victim's primary language of understanding. In addition, victim support services are accessible to all residents even in circumstances where no crime has been reported, nor is there any criminal proceeding underway.
This allows victims to access services and undergo rehabilitation, even in the instance where a choice is made to not report the crime. In the instance of mediation between offender and the victim, whereby the offender expresses remorse and the victim accepts the apology and reconciles, the judge and therefore the court may formally acknowledge the situation, still applying the sentence, however with a lighter punishment.
Ahmad Siddique's criminology, penology & victimology
This empowerment of the victim is often more necessary to provide closure than the strict punishment of the offender. If there is a decision not to prosecute on behalf of the police, and therefore not proceed to a court trial closure of the casethe victim can appeal the decision before a regional public prosecutor.
If the regional public prosecutor has initially decided to close the investigation, then the next avenue is a submission of appeal is to be directed towards the Director of public prosecutions.
State victim support only deals with certain types of offences with a fixed agenda and is far more regulated, making the process much more official, and leading to victims uncomfortable participating. Victims are entitled to participate in criminal trials as witnesses, private accusers or complainants, with assistance from legal counsel.
Additionally, legislation provides for protection of vulnerable witnesses e. The court held that rape laws must apply to all forms of non-consensual sexual acts. Issues with Human Trafficking Laws[ edit ] A recent Council of Europe on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings found that no adult victims of human trafficking received any form of assistance from the Bulgarian Government. First, it has two separate definitions: France[ edit ] Introduction: As of Februaryit had still failed to notify the EU what, if any, policies it had implemented to fulfill this.
There were three main schools of thought in early criminological theory spanning the period from the midth century to the mid-twentieth century: ClassicalPositivistand Chicago.Crime, Criminal and Criminology
These schools of thought were superseded by several contemporary paradigms of criminology, such as the sub-culture, control, strain, labeling, critical criminologycultural criminologypostmodern criminologyfeminist criminology and others discussed below.
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. January The Classical school arose in the midth century and has its basis in utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria author of On Crimes and Punishments —64Jeremy Bentham inventor of the panopticonand other philosophers in this school argued: The basis for deterrence is the idea humans are ' hedonists ' who seek pleasure and avoid pain, and 'rational calculators' who weigh the costs and benefits of every action.
It ignores the possibility of irrationality and unconscious drives as motivators. This school developed during a major reform in penologywhen society began designing prisons for the sake of extreme punishment. This period also saw many legal reforms, the French Revolutionand the development of the legal system in the United States. Philosophers within this school applied the scientific method to study human behavior. Positivism comprises three segments: This approach, whose influence came via the theory of phrenology and by Charles Darwin 's theory of evolutionhas been superseded.
Enrico Ferria student of Lombroso, believed social as well as biological factors played a role, and believed criminals should not be held responsible when factors causing their criminality were beyond their control. Criminologists have since rejected Lombroso's biological theories, since control groups were not used in his studies. Adolphe Quetelet used data and statistical analysis to study the relationship between crime and sociological factors. He found age, gender, poverty, education, and alcohol consumption were important factors to crime.
Rawson used crime statistics to suggest a link between population density and crime rateswith crowded cities producing more crime.
Differential association subcultural [ edit ] People learn crime through association. This theory was advocated by Edwin Sutherland. Interacting with antisocial peers is a major cause. Reinforcing criminal behavior makes it chronic.
Where there are criminal subculturesmany individuals learn crime, and crime rates swell in those areas. ParkErnest Burgessand other urban sociologists at the University of Chicago. In the s, Park and Burgess identified five concentric zones that often exist as cities grow, including the " zone of transition ", which was identified as the most volatile and subject to disorder.
Shaw focused on juvenile delinquentsfinding that they were concentrated in the zone of transition. Chicago school sociologists adopted a social ecology approach to studying cities and postulated that urban neighborhoods with high levels of poverty often experience breakdown in the social structure and institutions such as family and schools.
This results in social disorganizationwhich reduces the ability of these institutions to control behavior and creates an environment ripe for deviant behavior. Other researchers suggested an added social-psychological link. Edwin Sutherland suggested that people learn criminal behavior from older, more experienced criminals with whom they may associate. Theoretical perspectives used in criminology include psychoanalysisfunctionalisminteractionismMarxismeconometricssystems theorypostmodernismgeneticsneuropsychologyevolutionary psychologyetc.
Social structure theories[ edit ] This theory is applied to a variety of approaches within the bases of criminology in particular and in sociology more generally as a conflict theory or structural conflict perspective in sociology and sociology of crime.
As this perspective is itself broad enough, embracing as it does a diversity of positions. Shaw of the Chicago School. These groups have different values to the social norm.