7. Nuclear disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation | SIPRI
I. Treaty of the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Shannon N. Kile that the relationship between the TPNW, the NPT and related agreements would have to negotiating arms control and disarmament agreements, renewed efforts to break the. Arms control and disarmament agreements were traditionally designed to Détente and Confrontation: Soviet-American Relations from Nixon to Reagan. Arms control and disarmament are linked with the implementation of concrete As concerns the international Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), Finland works to . on firearms at the time of manufacture and in connection with export and import.
Disarmament and arms control efforts gained momentum internationally in that period. International peace conferences were held at The Hague in andbringing together the most powerful countries in the world.
Unfortunately, when World War I broke out a short time later, not all signatory states adhered to these laws and customs of war. After the horrors of WW I, the push for disarmament and arms control took on a renewed urgency. The Geneva Protocol of again banned the use of poison gas and biological weapons. Various other Geneva Conventions then formed the foundations for international humanitarian law, for instance by setting out rules for the treatment of prisoners of war.
The first World Disarmament Conference took place inbringing national leaders together to discuss steps intended to lead from disarmament to complete abolition of offensive weapons and mechanisms for preventing future wars. Nothing came of this initiative, however, especially because Nazi Germany was comprehensively rearming.
But despite the hostility, the perils of a catastrophic nuclear war did lead to renewed efforts to reach an arms agreement. By the s there was some success, with the parties concluding the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited test detonations in the atmosphere, in space and under water, although still allowing underground testing.
Arms Control and Disarmament
Inthe Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in full: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed. This multilateral agreement remains important today. Since the s, the Soviet Union, later Russia, and the United States have repeatedly arrived at agreements on their nuclear arsenals, with various limitations and reductions.
Inthe Chemical Weapons Convention entered into force, banning the possession of chemical weapons and providing for the destruction of any stockpiles in possession of treaty states. Progress was also made in nuclear disarmament. Arms control is meant to break the security dilemma. It aims at mutual security between partners and overall stability be it in a crisis situation, a grand strategyor stability to put an end to an arms race.
Other than stability, arms control comes with cost reduction and damage limitation. It is different from disarmament since the maintenance of stability might allow for mutually controlled armament and does not take a peace-without-weapons-stance.
Nevertheless, arms control is a defensive strategy in principle, since transparencyequality, and stability do not fit into an offensive strategy. Preth century[ edit ] One of the first recorded attempts in arms control was a set of rules laid down in ancient Greece by the Amphictyonic Leagues. Rulings specified how war could be waged, and breaches of this could be punished by fines or by war.
There were few recorded attempts to control arms during the period between this and the rise of the Roman Catholic Church. In the 8th and 9th centuries AD, swords and chain mail armor manufactured in the Frankish empire were highly sought after for their quality, and Charlemagne r. This was an attempt to limit the possession and use of this equipment by the Franks' enemies, including the Moorsthe Vikings and the Slavs. The church used its position as a trans-national organization to limit the means of warfare.
The Peace of God extended in ruling protected noncombatants, agrarian and economic facilities, and the property of the church from war. The Truce of God also tried to prevent violence between Christians. The Second Lateran Council in prohibited the use of crossbows against other Christians, although it did not prevent its use against non-Christians. The development of firearms led to an increase in the devastation of war.
However, during the period until the beginning of the 19th century few formal arms control agreements were recorded, except theoretical proposals and those imposed on defeated armies.
One treaty which was concluded was the Strasbourg Agreement of This is the first international agreement limiting the use of chemical weaponsin this case, poison bullets. Naturally, the concept of disarmament shows the greatest affinity to the transformational perspective. A related issue is whether arms control is a result of political circumstances, a dependent variable without a political impact of its own, or whether it has causal effect on interstate relations.
Constructivism proposes a dialectical relationship in which arms control and broader policy influence each other. From this reflection, the question of the conditions of success and failure flows naturally. Conducive interstate relations or extrinsic shockstechnology, domestic structures, learning, leadership, perception, and ideology have been candidates for the independent master variable.
Three models tackle the relationship of arms control and historical time: We can distinguish four arms control discourses: As with all politics, arms control involves justice issues: