Pericles - Wikipedia
94, Kock), and Plutarch quotes lines in chapter 30, with a very evident about Pericles, with only the first of which Phidias has any connection. Pericles was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during its golden age – specifically the. Plutarch, Life of Pericles 12 & 13  But that which brought most delightful . These latter persuaded one Menon, an assistant of Pheidias, to take a . most justly to those, who best know the difference between hardship and pleasure and yet.
It is called a democracy, because not the few but the many govern. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition.
Pericles' mother, Agariste, a member of the powerful and controversial noble family of the Alcmaeonidaeand her familial connections played a crucial role in helping start Xanthippus' political career.
Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant of SicyonCleisthenesand the niece of the Athenian reformer Cleisthenes. His early years were quiet; the introverted young Pericles avoided public appearances, instead preferring to devote his time to his studies. He learned music from the masters of the time Damon or Pythocleides could have been his teacher   and he is considered to have been the first politician to attribute importance to philosophy.
Anaxagoras, in particular, became a close friend and influenced him greatly. Throughout these years he endeavored to protect his privacy and to present himself as a model for his fellow citizens. For example, he would often avoid banquets, trying to be frugal. The Ecclesia the Athenian Assembly adopted Ephialtes' proposal without opposition. According to AristotlePericles' stance can be explained by the fact that his principal political opponent, Cimonwas both rich and generous, and was able to gain public favor by lavishly handing out portions of his sizable personal fortune.
Samons II argues, however, that Pericles had enough resources to make a political mark by private means, had he so chosen. The accusation was that Cimon betrayed his city by aiding Sparta.
Constantine Paparrigopoulosa major modern Greek historian, argues that Pericles sought for the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions. He was certain that democracy had reached its peak and Pericles' reforms were leading to the stalemate of populism. According to Paparrigopoulos, history vindicated Cimon, because Athens, after Pericles' death, sank into the abyss of political turmoil and demagogy. Paparrigopoulos maintains that an unprecedented regression descended upon the city, whose glory perished as a result of Pericles' populist policies.
First Peloponnesian War[ edit ] Main article: In BC he attacked Sicyon and Acarnania. Podlecki argues, however, that Pericles' alleged change of position was invented by ancient writers to support "a tendentious view of Pericles' shiftiness". Kagan's view is that Cimon adapted himself to the new conditions and promoted a political marriage between Periclean liberals and Cimonian conservatives. The campaign culminated in disaster; the besieging force was defeated and destroyed.
Phidias, Greek Sculptor
Pericles is said to have initiated both expeditions in Egypt and Cyprus,  although some researchers, such as Karl Julius Belochargue that the dispatch of such a great fleet conforms with the spirit of Cimon's policy. The very existence of the treaty is hotly disputed, and its particulars and negotiation are ambiguous. The Congress failed because of Sparta's stance, but Pericles' intentions remain unclear.
In BC the oligarchs of Thebes conspired against the democratic faction. And some there were who actually dreamed of Tuscany and Carthage, and that not without a measure of hope, in view of the magnitude of their present supremacy and the full-flowing tide of success in their undertakings.
He considered it a great achievement to hold the Lacedaemonians in check, and set himself in opposition to these in every way, as he showed, above all other things, by what he did in the Sacred War.
And whereas the Lacedaemonians had had the "promanteia," or right of consulting the oracle in behalf of others also, which the Delphians had bestowed upon them, carved upon the forehead of the bronze wolf in the sanctuary, he secured from the Phocians this high privilege for the Athenians, and had it chiselled along the right side of the same wolf.
To begin with, the Euboeans revolted, 43 and he crossed over to the island with a hostile force. Then straightway word was brought to him that the Megarians had gone over to the enemy, and that an army of the enemy was on the confines of Attica under the leadership of Pleistoanax, the king of the Lacedaemonians. He did not venture to join battle with hoplites who were so many, so brave, and so eager for battle, but seeing that Pleistoanax was a very young man, and that out of all his advisers he set most store by Cleandridas, whom the ephors had sent along with him, by reason of his youth, to be a guardian and an assistant to him, he secretly made trial of this man's integrity, speedily corrupted him with bribes, and persuaded him to lead the Peloponnesians back out of Attica.
He was the father of that Gylippus who overcame the Athenians in Sicily. And nature seems to have imparted covetousness to the son, as it were a congenital disease, owing to which he too, after noble achievements, was caught in base practices and banished from Sparta in disgrace. But some writers, among whom is Theophrastus the philosopher, have stated that every year ten talents found their way to Sparta from Pericles, and that with these he conciliated all the officials there, and so staved off the war, not purchasing peace, but time, in which he could make preparations at his leisure and then carry on war all the better.
Now, since it is thought that he proceeded thus against the Samians to gratify Aspasia, this may be a fitting place to raise the query what great art or power this woman had, that she managed as she pleased the foremost men of the state, and afforded the philosophers occasion to discuss her in exalted terms and at great length.
This Thargelia came to be a great beauty and was endowed with grace of manners as well as clever wits. Inasmuch as she lived on terms of intimacy with numberless Greeks, and attached all her consorts to the king of Persia, she stealthily sowed the seeds of Persian sympathy in the cities of Greece by means of these lovers of hers, who were men of the greatest power and influence.
Socrates sometimes came to see her with his disciples, and his intimate friends brought their wives to her to hear her discourse, although she presided over a business that was anything but honest or even reputable, since she kept a house of young courtesans.
And in the "Menexenus" of Plato, even though the first part of it be written in a sportive vein, there is, at any rate, thus much of fact, that the woman had the reputation of associating with many Athenians as a teacher of rhetoric. For his own wife was near of kin to him, and had been wedded first to Hipponicus, to whom she bore Callias, surnamed the Rich; she bore also, as the wife of Pericles, Xanthippus and Paralus.
After, since their married life was not agreeable, he legally bestowed her upon another man, with her own consent, and himself took Aspasia, and loved her exceedingly.
But in the comedies she is styled now the New Omphale, new Deianeira, and now Hera. Cratinus 47 flatly called her a prostitute in these lines: She was a Phocaean by birth, daughter of one Hermotimus, and, after Cyrus had fallen in battle, was carried captive to the King, 49 and acquired the greatest influence with him.
So Pericles set sail and broke up the oligarchical government which Samos had, and then took fifty of the foremost men of the state, with as many of their children, as hostages, and sent them off to Lemnos. And still further, Pissouthnes, the Persian satrap, who had much good-will towards the Samians, sent him ten thousand gold staters and interceded for the city. However, Pericles took none of these bribes, but treated the Samians just as he had determined, set up a democracy and sailed back to Athens.
Once more, therefore, Pericles set sail against them. They were not victims of sloth, nor yet to abject terror, but full of exceeding zeal in their determination to contest the supremacy of the sea.
In a fierce sea-fight which came off near an island called Tragia, Pericles won a brilliant victory, with four and forty ships outfighting seventy, twenty of which were infantry transports. But soon a second and a larger armament came from Athens, and the Samians were completely beleaguered and shut in. Then Pericles took sixty triremes and sailed out into the main sea, as most authorities say, because he wished to meet a fleet of Phoenician ships which was coming to the aid of the Samians, and fight it as great a distance from Samos as possible; but according to Stesimbrotus, because he had designs on Cyprus, which seems incredible.
For no sooner had he sailed off than Melissus, the son of Ithagenes, a philosopher who was then acting as general at Samos, despising either the small number of ships that were left, or the inexperience of the generals in charge of them, persuaded his fellow-citizens to make an attack upon the Athenians. The Samians retaliated upon the Athenians by branding their prisoners in the forehead with owls; for the Athenians had once branded some of them with the samaena.
Now the samaena is a ship of war with a boar's head design for prow and ram, but more capacious than usual and paunchlike, so that it is a good deep-sea traveller and a swift sailer too. To these brand-marks, they say, the verse of Aristophanes 50 made riddling reference: And though Melissus arrayed his forces against him, he conquered and routed the enemy and at once walled their city in, preferring to get the upper hand and capture it at the price of money and time, rather than of the wounds and deadly perils of his fellow-citizens.
And this is the reason, as they say, why those who have had a gay and festive time call it a "white day," — from the white bean. Heracleides Ponticus, however, refutes this story out of the poems of Anacreon, in which Artemon Periphoretus is mentioned many generations before the Samian War and its events. Whenever he was forced to go abroad, he had himself carried in a little hammock which was borne along just above the surface of the ground.
On this account he was called Periphoretus. To these details Duris the Samian adds stuff for tragedy, accusing the Athenians and Pericles of great brutality, which is recorded neither by Thucydides, nor Ephorus, nor Aristotle. Although no original works of Phidias remain today, numerous copies Roman copies are known to exist.
This is fairly common as almost all classical Greek sculptures and paintings have been destroyed - the Romans made very close copies - never developing their own style but instead furthering the Greek style. Statue of Zeus Phidias's colossal figure of Zeus c. The temple itself was built in the Mycenaean period and celebrated the cult of the God Zeus.
The statue took 12 years to sculpt, and although it is no longer in existence, a small copy was found on coins of Elis which gives us a general idea of it's pose. On Zeus' head was a wreath of olive leaves, in his right hand he held a figure of Nike, the goddess of victory and in his left hand, a sceptre made with various metals, with an eagle perched on top.
His robe and sandals were made with solid gold and his garments were engraved with animals and lilies. The throne was decorated with gold, ivory, ebony and other precious stones. It became one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the largest statue in the ancient history of sculpture. How to Appreciate Sculpture.
For later works, please see: How to Appreciate Modern Sculpture. Statue of Athena Promachos Phidias other most famous work was the Athena Promachos or Parthenoswhich was originally housed in the Parthenon in Athens.