Brink (1b): What makes psychology scientific?: Introductory Psychology
In the relations between psychology and biology these two-way exchanges are particularly striking. It might seem that psychology was completely subordinated. Psychology and the other behavioral or social sciences (sociology, anthropology, . The relationship between psychology and religion is often debated. On the other hand, it's still true that they share certain things, and one In turn, sociology is a social science dedicated to a systematic study of.
Gaining insight into the social psychology of persons involves looking at the influences that individuals have on the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of other individuals, as well as the influence that groups have on individuals. This aspect of social psychology asks questions like: How do small group dynamics impact cognition and emotional states? How do social groups control or contribute to behavior, emotion, or attitudes of the individual members?
How does the group impact the individual? How does the individual operate within the social group? Second, it tries to understand the influence that individual perceptions and behaviors have upon the behavior of groups. This includes looking at things like group productivity in the workplace and group decision making.
It looks at questions like: How does persuasion work to change group behavior, emotion or attitudes? What are the reasons behind conformity, diversity, and deviance?
Relations between psychology and other sciences.
Third, and finally, social psychology tries to understand groups themselves as behavioral entities, and the relationships and influences that one group has upon another group Michener 5. It asks questions like: What makes some groups hostile to one another, and others neutral or civil? Do groups behave in a different way than an individual outside the group? In European textbooks there is also fourth level called the "ideological" level.
It studies the societal forces that influence the human psyche. Underlying issues[ edit ] In social psychology, as in any other discipline, there will be a number of underlying philosophical predispositions in the projects of scientists.
Some of these predispositions involve the nature of social knowledge itself, the nature of social reality, and the locus of human control in action Cote and Levine, ; Slife and Gantt, One main and lasting crisis has been the debate over positivism and phenomenology.
In the former, the research focus has been an attempt to find overarching, universal laws to social behavior and history. In the latter, by contrast, the emphasis is upon a focus of empirical study, and making accurate descriptions of social reality, regardless of whether or not they fit a grand theory or explanation.
These two forms have tended to lend themselves to favor either quantitative or qualitative methods, respectively. In addition to these two orientations, there is a third outlook: Sociology not only borrows from other social sciences but other social sciences also dependent on sociology.
Actually there are two types of social sciences called special sciences which deals special activity of society like economics, psychology etc. The second type of social sciences calle general social sciences which undertake comprehensively. Sociology comes in category of general science. Sociology and Psychology are overlapping in that social influences effect the psychological development of individuals. Sociology is obvious in history in that the social interactions of individuals have effected history, and then of course there is the history of Sociology itself.
The study of economics in sociology is stratification, which is the study of how we are a part of a certain economic level in society and how we got there and how it effects us. Finally, political science has been studied by many Sociologists for such issues as slavery, women in politics, etc. It is interesting to see the connection and distinction between sociology and some of more important social sciences in what follows: Relation between Sociology and History: Both social sciences are now a days coming nearer to each other.
Some time ago history was considered as science of some dates, places and struggles. But now people have realizes that why the particular event in history occurred? What was form of the same? In short history is another social science which is related to irect society and sociology. By presenting following points we can clear the relation of both: Sociology takes help from history in mater of present studies.
By comparing between occurring past and present events, one can estimate the factors responsible for occurring that event. There are so many institutions, like family ,tribe, culture, folkways, mores, tradition ,social movements, social changes etc, who have historical background of occurring.
On the basis of that we can understand present situationand try to organized accordingly. In sociological research studies, Historical method of study is very relevant and important. History is not only history of events but it is key to understand present events. In the same way sociology gives social background for the study of historical events. Harward to remarked that History is past Sociology ,and Sociology is present history. But, in spite of their close relationship the two sciences are distinct: Sociology is general science which covers all human aspects ,while history is special science which study only historical aspects of events.
History is related with past events an there is no relation with modern events. Contrary to it Sociology is basically a modern science, which study present social situation of human behavior. Durkheim's book 'The Rules of Sociological Method' says ,sociology is entirely different from history. He further says, historical events have record of individual roles, while sociology means ,it is study of social facts and social representations occurred by social circumstances.
History means only description ,while sociology means analysis, interpretations and classifications. The nature of History is not scientific, which can not be retested. But the test of social phenomenon is possible.
Relation between sociology and political science: Sociology and political science are also related in the sense that they both concern the welfare of people in a society.
Political science basically deals with the distribution of power and the exercise of power ,democracy, dictatorship, communism, how people vote etc. These two subjects have much common in subject matters. The important point is that king of any place is social as well as political. There is no separate existence without each other.
Since modern social contacts are primarily psychic, the social sciences are very largely dependent upon social psychology for methods of interpretation of the collective behavior with which the social sciences are concerned. Some of the social sciences have been regrettably slow in recognizing this fact. But dependence upon social psychology for aid in the interpretation of collective phenomena is far different from an identity between the social sciences and social psychology.
All of the sciences are related more or less directly or indirectly. The data of all of the sciences must be used by each of the sciences in some way to explain the phenomena of its own problems.
Sociology, for example, is not wholly foreign even to physics and chemistry, nor to astronomy and mathematics. The social sciences are especially closely related to psychology and biology. Social psychology is therefore one of the chief intellectual handmaidens to all of the social sciences. They use her data and principles of the explanation of behavior. But they are separate sciences by virtue of the separateness of their problems. A science is organized about its problems, and all of the other sciences are called upon to aid in providing a theoretical solution of those problems in so far as they can contribute explanatory data.
The problems of sociology have to do with the origin, organization, maintenance, transformation, functioning, and decay of groups of all kinds. Political science is concerned with the same problems, but especially with reference to groups of one specific kind— the political. Economics has a like set of problems centering in economic, or production, distribution and consumption, behavior.
History deaf with the past functioning of individuals and groups in these same types of relationships. In order to state and solve their problems theoretically these several social disciplines must make very extensive application of the data of social psychol- -ogy. But in less degree they must employ for like purposes the data and principles of biology, and even of chemistry and of physics. Yet we should not identify the social sciences with biology or chemistry, however much the former may be indebted to the latter for an explanation of their problems.
The problem of social psychology is as distinct as that of any other social science. It is to find out how men behave in groups, or, in other words, to study the reactions of individuals to the psycho-social environment and the consequent building up of collective adjustment behavior patterns in the individuals in response to social stimuli.
In order to answer these questions it is necessary, on the one hand, for the science of social psychology to have an analysis of the psycho-social environment in terms of the processes operating to provide stimuli to the responding individual, and, on the other hand, to understand the organization of behavior patterns in the individual himself.
With these two backgrounds it is possible to give an account of the further integration of behavior patterns of individuals responding individually or collectively to psycho-social stimuli. It is such materials as these that we have attempted to present in outline, without more than merely illustrative applications, in the volume which is now closed.
The content of this page is still protected by copyright in the United States of America and can not be reproduced within its boundaries for any purpose other than one's own scholarship. The Mead project exercises no control over that copyright.
This page and related Mead Project pages constitute the personal web-site of Dr. Lloyd Gordon Ward retiredwho is responsible for its content. Although the Mead Project continues to be presented through the generosity of Brock University, the contents of this page do not reflect the opinion of Brock University.
The Similarities and Differences Between Psychology and Sociology - Exploring your mind
Brock University is not responsible for its content. Scholars are permitted to reproduce this material for personal use. Instructors are permitted to reproduce this material for educational use by their students.