Interpersonal Communication: Challenges and Solutions | Laboratory Medicine | Oxford Academic
Interpersonal relationships can be difficult. Whether it is common for most people to experience some sort of a problem in their relationships. Traumatic events can have a major impact on attachment behavior and interpersonal relationships. In addition to the detrimental effects of. managed. (2) That positive interpersonal relationship in workplace should be rooted in Interpersonal relations, therefore is a very important issue involving any.
Social Relationships The circumstances in which the patient is living can be explored with direct questions. Information should be sought from unmarried patients about relationships with any persons with whom they share their dwellings. The patient should be asked to describe recreational activities and community involvement.
The physician can then lead quite naturally into a discussion of interpersonal relationships. Many people have numerous acquaintances and superficial friends but nonetheless feel quite lonely and isolated in respect to having close friends.
The patient can be asked whether the number of friends is as great as desired and whether some are persons to whom the patient can freely confide feelings. Work Relationships Since work is an almost universal human experience, it is not surprising that it can be an important source of stress.
Relationship and Interpersonal Issues
Gainful employment in American society is so important that its lack is almost always associated with emotional upheaval and loss of self-esteem. One must be particularly careful not to be deceived by a patient's statement that work is a problem-free area. This may be true in the patient's mind, but indirect effects of the occupation on other aspects of life experience may not have been recognized.
Many people are so emotionally invested in their work that they fail to see the devastating effects of their long hours and arduous schedule on their family relationships. Physicians are particularly prone to this difficulty. Beginning inquiry in this area with an open-ended question such as, "Tell me about your work," is usually more productive than asking direct questions that can be answered yes or no. It is advisable to ask for more details if a patient gives only a general statement.
For example, a patient who reports working in a chicken plant has not told the physician precisely what the job is. There is a vast difference between the secretary's job in the central office and the job of the person on the production line who removes the intestines.
Inquiry into goals is often helpful. Asking about childhood ambitions may lead to a comparison of current status with what the patient would have preferred to become. If a person describes difficulties, either dissatisfaction with advancement, personality clashes, or a failure to see meaning in the work, this area should be explored in as much depth as the patient is willing to pursue.
One should not close inquiry without asking for a specific report of the patient's work schedule. This should include information concerning total hours of work per week, amount of night work, and extent of out-of-town travel.
The spouse should also be asked about the work schedule, since many people tend to underestimate the amount of time they are spending at work.
Religious Relationships Most Americans state some religious preference. More than half of all Americans are affiliated with some church organization, but many Americans have only superficial contact with these religious organizations. Emotional problems revolving around religious conflicts are not as frequent as those arising out of marital or work relationships. Nevertheless, such conflicts occur frequently enough to warrant some investigation of this area.
If a patient indicates no religious belief, additional questions can still be useful. One might ask whether the lack of religious belief creates any problem.
The patient's response to this or a similar question will often reveal whether this area is one that should be explored further. Some patients with no religious preference may be choosing this course out of unconscious rebellion toward parents or from some other motivation that they do not fully understand.
In these cases, the presence of the apparent conflict can be noted and later explored in more depth. For patients who express a religious preference, inquiry into their church activities can be helpful.
As they describe their church contacts, it is usually easy to make an accurate estimate of the significance of religion to them and of the presence of potential conflicts.
Asking if religious beliefs cause behavior that is unlike that of most others in the patient's social group or whether religious beliefs cause feelings of being different can also be revealing in terms of bringing emotional difficulties to the surface. Many people find strong emotional support from their religious convictions. Deep religious conviction is not in itself a sign of emotional difficulty.
If a patient's behavior is considerably different from that of most others in the religious group, however, the physician should inquire carefully into reasons for this discrepancy.
Sexual Relationships Most sexual difficulties are not caused by physical problems. They are usually the result of emotional conflict. Consequently, it is of great importance to explore the feelings which the patient has toward the sexual partner. The procedures for taking a sexual history are outlined in Chapter Basic Science Not only has mental illness been found in all cultures that have been carefully studied, but evidence of its existence can be found in the depths of antiquity.
There have been many views of the basic cause of mental disturbance, but almost all ancient theories saw it as basically being the result of something amiss within the individual.
Many ancient views focused on mental illness as the result of actions of the gods or infestation of persons by demons. From that time to the present, physicians have continued to be fascinated by the effects of physical dysfunction on mental activity.
After the demonstration by H. Noguchi of Treponema pallidum in the brain of patients with central nervous system syphilis, there could be little question that physical conditions could be the basis of major mental problems.
Since that time, many psychiatric conditions have been found to have an organic etiology. A related but somewhat different line of thought also placed the basic problem of mental illness within the patient but saw this as a problem of organization of thinking rather than as some physical defect in nervous system function.
Studies of hypnosis clearly demonstrated that major changes in thinking patterns and behavior could be accomplished purely by the psychological technique of suggestion. Early work in the area of hypnosis by such people as Anton Mesmer —James Braid —Hippolyte Bernheim —and Jean Martin Charcot — illustrated both that the symptoms of certain patients could be altered by suggestions and that the mind could block out awareness of posthypnotic suggestions without in any way diminishing the patient's need to follow the suggestions.
The psychoanalytic studies of Freud, Jung, Adler, and Rank have demonstrated the presence of unconscious motivation for behavior. Clinical investigation into the reasons for unconscious emotional conflicts has repeatedly led to the conclusion that interpersonal relationships play a major role in the development of personality.
Relationships with parents have been found to be of particular importance in the development of basic attitudes.
Relationship and Interpersonal Issues | CBT Psychology
Harry Stack Sullivan — utilized astute and accurate clinical observations to focus intensively on the importance of the interpersonal relationships. His emphasis on communication processes in interpersonal behavior laid the groundwork for the present strong emphasis on environment and interpersonal relationships as etiologic factors in many emotional disorders.
The emotional state of the patient is primarily the result of an interaction between his or her internal and external environment. If the internal environment is altered by physical disease such as central nervous system syphilis general paresis or Korsakoff's syndrome an organic brain syndrome caused by vitamin deficiency associated with alcoholismmental illness can occur.
Similarly, a patient overwhelmed by emotional stress may experience derangements in the organization of his or her thinking. Such patients have no demonstrable nervous system lesions that would account for the neurotic or psychotic behavior. Disruptions in interpersonal relationships are frequently the precipitating events for neurotic and psychotic behavior.
Consequently, most modern thinking sees mental illness as an interaction between an internal emotional substrate different for each individual and environmental stresses. Most forms of psychotherapy focus on both resolution of internal conflicts and improvement in the patient's ability to handle interpersonal relationships. Many psychiatrists view psychotherapy as an educational process that provides increased understanding of self and enhanced ability to deal with interpersonal relationships.
Behavior therapy focuses directly on learning the skills needed for improving interpersonal relationships with the operating assumption that the patient's internal mental state will move in the desired direction once the external stresses are resolved.
Clinical Significance In many cases, inquiry into interpersonal relationships will produce evidence of considerable strength. This information in itself may be of great help in dealing with medical problems.
For example, if a strong, harmonious marriage exists, the physician can then count on the patient's spouse to be supportive of the patient during the illness being treated. In some cases in which interpersonal conflicts are present, these conflicts may exist without having any significant relationship to the presenting illness. The people with whom we interact act like mirrors of our own attitude and behaviour.
They may also treat us in a way that make us react negatively despite our good intentions. In turn, our daily interactions help us to continuously recreate our sense of identity. These interactions can either strengthen our self-esteem or make us feel uncomfortable with who we are. Imagine yourself among a group of people with whom you feel accepted and liked.
How do you feel in this situation? For most people, this brings a sense of belonging associated with feel good hormones, positive emotions and pleasant physical sensations. Positive, meaningful relationships make a difference in our life. Social Connection There is a biological need for social connection. This includes getting together with good friends, being around accepting co-workers, and in romantic relationships.
Higher levels of oxytocin go hand-in-hand with better communication and lower stress.